Against Heresies: Book V
In the four preceding books, my very dear friend, which I put forth to
thee, all the heretics have been exposed, and their doctrines brought
to light, and these men refuted who have devised irreligious opinions.
[I have accomplished this by adducing] something from the doctrine
peculiar to each of these men, which they have left in their writings,
as well as by using arguments of a more general nature, and applicable
to them all.  Then I have pointed out the truth, and shown the
preaching of the Church, which the prophets proclaimed (as I have
already demonstrated), but which Christ brought to perfection, and the
apostles have handed down, from whom the Church, receiving [these
truths], and throughout all the world alone preserving them in their
integrity (bene), has transmitted them to her sons. Then also—having
disposed of all questions which the heretics propose to us, and having
explained the doctrine of the apostles, and clearly set forth many of
those things which were said and done by the Lord in parables—I shall
endeavour, in this the fifth book of the entire work which treats of
the exposure and refutation of knowledge falsely so called, to exhibit
proofs from the rest of the Lord’s doctrine and the apostolical
epistles: [thus] complying with thy demand, as thou didst request of me
(since indeed I have been assigned a place in the ministry of the
word); and, labouring by every means in my power to furnish thee with
large assistance against the contradictions of the heretics, as also to
reclaim the wanderers and convert them to the Church of God, to confirm
at the same time the minds of the neophytes, that they may preserve
stedfast the faith which they have received, guarded by the Church in
its integrity, in order that they be in no way perverted by those who
endeavour to teach them false doctrines, and lead them away from the
truth. It will be incumbent upon thee, however, and all who may happen
to read this writing, to peruse with great attention what I have
already said, that thou mayest obtain a knowledge of the subjects
against which I am contending. For it is thus that thou wilt both
controvert them in a legitimate manner, and wilt be prepared to receive
the proofs brought forward against them, casting away their doctrines
as filth by means of the celestial faith; but following the only true
and stedfast Teacher, the Word of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, who did,
through His transcendent love, become what we are, that He might bring
Chapter I.—Christ alone is able to teach divine things, and to redeem us: He,
the same, took flesh of the Virgin Mary, not merely in appearance, but
actually, by the operation of the Holy Spirit, in order to renovate us.
Strictures on the conceits of Valentinus and Ebion.
1. For in no other way could we have learned the things of God, unless
our Master, existing as the Word, had become man. For no other being
had the power of revealing to us the things of the Father, except His
own proper Word. For what other person “knew the mind of the Lord,” or
who else “has become His counsellor?”  Again, we could have
learned in no other way than by seeing our Teacher, and hearing His
voice with our own ears, that, having become imitators of His works as
well as doers of His words, we may have communion with Him, receiving
increase from the perfect One, and from Him who is prior to all
creation. We—who were but lately created by the only best and good
Being, by Him also who has the gift of immortality, having been formed
after His likeness (predestinated, according to the prescience of the
Father, that we, who had as yet no existence, might come into being),
and made the first-fruits of creation  --have received, in the
times known beforehand, [the blessings of salvation] according to the
ministration of the Word, who is perfect in all things, as the mighty
Word, and very man, who, redeeming us by His own blood in a manner
consonant to reason, gave Himself as a redemption for those who had
been led into captivity. And since the apostasy tyrannized over us
unjustly, and, though we were by nature the property of the omnipotent
God, alienated us contrary to nature, rendering us its own disciples,
the Word of God, powerful in all things, and not defective with regard
to His own justice, did righteously turn against that apostasy, and
redeem from it His own property, not by violent means, as the
[apostasy] had obtained dominion over us at the beginning, when it
insatiably snatched away what was not its own, but by means of
persuasion, as became a God of counsel, who does not use violent means
to obtain what He desires; so that neither should justice be infringed
upon, nor the ancient handiwork of God go to destruction. Since the
Lord thus has redeemed us through His own blood, giving His soul for
our souls, and His flesh for our flesh,  and has also poured out
the Spirit of the Father for the union and communion of God and man,
imparting indeed God to men by means of the Spirit, and, on the other
hand, attaching man to God by His own incarnation, and bestowing upon
us at His coming immortality durably and truly, by means of communion
with God,--all the doctrines of the heretics fall to ruin.
2. Vain indeed are those who allege that He appeared in mere seeming.
For these things were not done in appearance only, but in actual
reality. But if He did appear as a man, when He was not a man, neither
could the Holy Spirit have rested upon Him,--an occurrence which did
actually take place—as the Spirit is invisible; nor, [in that case],
was there any degree of truth in Him, for He was not that which He
seemed to be. But I have already remarked that Abraham and the other
prophets beheld Him after a prophetical manner, foretelling in vision
what should come to pass. If, then, such a being has now appeared in
outward semblance different from what he was in reality, there has been
a certain prophetical vision made to men; and another advent of His
must be looked forward to, in which He shall be such as He has now been
seen in a prophetic manner. And I have proved already, that it is the
same thing to say that He appeared merely to outward seeming, and [to
affirm] that He received nothing from Mary. For He would not have been
one truly possessing flesh and blood, by which He redeemed us, unless
He had summed up in Himself the ancient formation of Adam. Vain
therefore are the disciples of Valentinus who put forth this opinion,
in order that they may exclude the flesh from salvation, and cast aside
what God has fashioned.
3. Vain also are the Ebionites, who do not receive by faith into their
soul the union of God and man, but who remain in the old leaven of [the
natural] birth, and who do not choose to understand that the Holy Ghost
came upon Mary, and the power of the Most High did overshadow her:
 wherefore also what was generated is a holy thing, and the Son
of the Most High God the Father of all, who effected the incarnation of
this being, and showed forth a new [kind of] generation; that as by the
former generation we inherited death, so by this new generation we
might inherit life. Therefore do these men reject the commixture of the
heavenly wine,  and wish it to be water of the world only, not
receiving God so as to have union with Him, but they remain in that
Adam who had been conquered and was expelled from Paradise: not
considering that as, at the beginning of our formation in Adam, that
breath of life which proceeded from God, having been united to what had
been fashioned, animated the man, and manifested him as a being endowed
with reason; so also, in [the times of] the end, the Word of the Father
and the Spirit of God, having become united with the ancient substance
of Adam’s formation, rendered man living and perfect, receptive of the
perfect Father, in order that as in the natural [Adam] we all were
dead, so in the spiritual we may all be made alive.  For never at
any time did Adam escape the hands  of God, to whom the Father
speaking, said, “Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness.” And
for this reason in the last times (fine), not by the will of the flesh,
 Rom. xi. 34.
 “Initium facturae,” which Grabe thinks should be thus translated
with reference to Jas. i. 18.
 [Compare Clement, cap. 49, p. 18, this volume.]
 Luke i. 35.
 In allusion to the mixture of water in the eucharistic cup, as
practised in these primitive times. The Ebionites and others used to consecrate the element of water alone.
 1 Cor. xv. 22.
 Viz., the Son and the Spirit.
Chapter II.—When Christ visited us in His grace, He did not come to what did
not belong to Him: also, by shedding His true blood for us, and exhibiting to
us His true flesh in the Eucharist, He conferred upon our flesh the capacity
1. And vain likewise are those who say that God came to those things
which did not belong to Him, as if covetous of another’s property; in
order that He might deliver up that man who had been created by
another, to that God who had neither made nor formed anything, but who
also was deprived from the beginning of His own proper formation of
men. The advent, therefore, of Him whom these men represent as coming
to the things of others, was not righteous; nor did He truly redeem us
by His own blood, if He did not really become man, restoring to His own
handiwork what was said [of it] in the beginning, that man was made
after the image and likeness of God; not snatching away by stratagem
the property of another, but taking possession of His own in a
righteous and gracious manner. As far as concerned the apostasy,
indeed, He redeems us righteously from it by His own blood; but as
regards us who have been redeemed, [He does this] graciously. For we
have given nothing to Him previously, nor does He desire anything from
us, as if He stood in need of it; but we do stand in need of fellowship
with Him. And for this reason it was that He graciously poured Himself
out, that He might gather us into the bosom of the Father.
2. But vain in every respect are they who despise the entire
dispensation of God, and disallow the salvation of the flesh, and treat
with contempt its regeneration, maintaining that it is not capable of
incorruption. But if this indeed do not attain salvation, then neither
did the Lord redeem us with His blood, nor is the cup of the Eucharist
the communion of His blood, nor the bread which we break the communion
of His body.  For blood can only come from veins and flesh, and
whatsoever else makes up the substance of man, such as the Word of God
was actually made. By His own blood he redeemed us, as also His apostle
declares, “In whom we have redemption through His blood, even the
remission of sins.”  And as we are His members, we are also
nourished by means of the creation (and He Himself grants the creation
to us, for He causes His sun to rise, and sends rain when He wills
 ). He has acknowledged the cup (which is a part of the creation)
as His own blood, from which He bedews our blood; and the bread (also a
part of the creation) He has established as His own body, from which He
gives increase to our bodies. 
3. When, therefore, the mingled cup and the manufactured bread receives
the Word of God, and the Eucharist of the blood and the body of Christ
is made,  from which things the substance of our flesh is
increased and supported, how can they affirm that the flesh is
incapable of receiving the gift of God, which is life eternal, which
[flesh] is nourished from the body and blood of the Lord, and is a
member of Him?--even as the blessed Paul declares in his Epistle to the
Ephesians, that “we are members of His body, of His flesh, and of His
bones.”  He does not speak these words of some spiritual and
invisible man, for a spirit has not bones nor flesh;  but [he
refers to] that dispensation [by which the Lord became] an actual man,
consisting of flesh, and nerves, and bones,--that [flesh] which is
nourished by the cup which is His blood, and receives increase from the
bread which is His body. And just as a cutting from the vine planted in
the ground fructifies in its season, or as a corn of wheat falling into
the earth and becoming decomposed, rises with manifold increase by the
Spirit of God, who contains all things, and then, through the wisdom of
God, serves for the use of men, and having received the Word of God,
becomes the Eucharist, which is the body and blood of Christ; so also
our bodies, being nourished by it, and deposited in the earth, and
suffering decomposition there, shall rise at their appointed time, the
Word of God granting them resurrection to the glory of God, even the
Father, who freely gives to this mortal immortality, and to this
corruptible incorruption,  because the strength of God is made
perfect in weakness,  in order that we may never become puffed
up, as if we had life from ourselves, and exalted against God, our
minds becoming ungrateful; but learning by experience that we possess
eternal duration from the excelling power of this Being, not from our
own nature, we may neither undervalue that glory which surrounds God as
He is, nor be ignorant of our own nature, but that we may know what God
can effect, and what benefits man receives, and thus never wander from
the true comprehension of things as they are, that is, both with regard
to God and with regard to man. And might it not be the case, perhaps,
as I have already observed, that for this purpose God permitted our
resolution into the common dust of mortality,  that we, being
instructed by every mode, may be accurate in all things for the future,
 1 Cor. x. 16.
 Col. i. 14.
 Matt. v. 45.
 [Again, the carefully asserts that the bread is the body, and
the wine (cup) is the blood. The elements are sanctified, not changed
 The Greek text, of which a considerable portion remains here, would give, “and the Eucharist becomes the body of Christ.”
 Eph. v. 30.
 Luke xxiv. 39.
 1 Cor. xv. 53.
 2 Cor. xii. 3.
 This is Harvey’s free rendering of the passage, which is in the
Greek (as preserved in the Catena of John of Damascus): kai dia touto
enescheto ho Theos ten eis ten gen hemon analusin. In the Latin:
Propter hoc passus est Deus fieri in nobis resolutionem. See Book iii.
Chapter III.—The power and glory of God shine forth in the weakness of human
flesh, as He will render our body a participator of the resurrection and of
immortality, although He has formed it from the dust of the earth; He will
also bestow upon it the enjoyment of immortality, just as He grants it this
short life in common with the soul.
1. The Apostle Paul has, moreover, in the most lucid manner, pointed
out that man has been delivered over to his own infirmity, lest, being
uplifted, he might fall away from the truth. Thus he says in the second
[Epistle] to the Corinthians: “And lest I should be lifted up by the
sublimity of the revelations, there was given unto me a thorn in the
flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me. And upon this I besought
the Lord three times, that it might depart from me. But he said unto
me, My grace is sufficient for thee; for strength is made perfect in
weakness. Gladly therefore shall I rather glory in infirmities, that
the power of Christ may dwell in me.”  What, therefore? (as some
may exclaim:) did the Lord wish, in that case, that His apostles should
thus undergo buffeting, and that he should endure such infirmity? Even
so it was; the word says it. For strength is made perfect in weakness,
rendering him a better man who by means of his infirmity becomes
acquainted with the power of God. For how could a man have learned that
he is himself an infirm being, and mortal by nature, but that God is
immortal and powerful, unless he had learned by experience what is in
both? For there is nothing evil in learning one’s infirmities by
endurance; yea, rather, it has even the beneficial effect of preventing
him from forming an undue opinion of his own nature (non aberrare in
natura sua). But the being lifted up against God, and taking His glory
to one’s self, rendering man ungrateful, has brought much evil upon
him. [And thus, I say, man must learn both things by experience], that
he may not be destitute of truth and love either towards himself or his
Creator.  But the experience of both confers upon him the true
knowledge as to God and man, and increases his love towards God. Now,
where there exists an increase of love, there a greater glory is wrought out by the power of God for those who love Him.
2. Those men, therefore, set aside the power of God, and do not
consider what the word declares, when they dwell upon the infirmity of
the flesh, but do not take into consideration the power of Him who
raises it up from the dead. For if He does not vivify what is mortal,
and does not bring back the corruptible to incorruption, He is not a
God of power. But that He is powerful in all these respects, we ought
to perceive from our origin, inasmuch as God, taking dust from the
earth, formed man. And surely it is much more difficult and incredible,
from non-existent bones, and nerves, and veins, and the rest of man’s
organization, to bring it about that all this should be, and to make
man an animated and rational creature, than to reintegrate again that
which had been created and then afterwards decomposed into earth (for
the reasons already mentioned), having thus passed into those
[elements] from which man, who had no previous existence, was formed.
For He who in the beginning caused him to have being who as yet was
not, just when He pleased, shall much more reinstate again those who
had a former existence, when it is His will [that they should inherit]
the life granted by Him. And that flesh shall also be found fit for and
capable of receiving the power of God, which at the beginning received
the skilful touches of God; so that one part became the eye for seeing;
another, the ear for hearing; another, the hand for feeling and
working; another, the sinews stretched out everywhere, and holding the
limbs together; another, arteries and veins, passages for the blood and
the air;  another, the various internal organs; another, the
blood, which is the bond of union between soul and body. But why go [on
in this strain]? Numbers would fail to express the multiplicity of parts in the human frame, which was made in no other way than by the great wisdom of God. But those things which partake of the skill and wisdom of God, do also partake of His power.
3. The flesh, therefore, is not destitute [of participation] in the constructive wisdom and power of God. But if the power of Him who is the bestower of life is made perfect in weakness—that is, in the
flesh—let them inform us, when they maintain the incapacity of flesh
to receive the life granted by God, whether they do say these things as
being living men at present, and partakers of life, or acknowledge
that, having no part in life whatever, they are at the present moment
dead men. And if they really are dead men, how is it that they move
about, and speak, and perform those other functions which are not the
actions of the dead, but of the living? But if they are now alive, and
if their whole body partakes of life, how can they venture the
assertion that the flesh is not qualified to be a partaker of life,
when they do confess that they have life at the present moment? It is
just as if anybody were to take up a sponge full of water, or a torch
on fire, and to declare that the sponge could not possibly partake of
the water, or the torch of the fire. In this very manner do those men,
by alleging that they are alive and bear life about in their members,
contradict themselves afterwards, when they represent these members as
not being capable of [receiving] life. But if the present temporal
life, which is of such an inferior nature to eternal life, can
nevertheless effect so much as to quicken our mortal members, why
should not eternal life, being much more powerful than this, vivify the
flesh, which has already held converse with, and been accustomed to
sustain, life? For that the flesh can really partake of life, is shown
from the fact of its being alive; for it lives on, as long as it is
God’s purpose that it should do so. It is manifest, too, that God has
the power to confer life upon it, inasmuch as He grants life to us who
are in existence. And, therefore, since the Lord has power to infuse
life into what He has fashioned, and since the flesh is capable of
being quickened, what remains to prevent its participating in
 2 Cor. xii. 7-9.
 We have adopted here the explanation of Massuet, who considers
the preceding period as merely parenthetical. Both Grabe and Harvey,
however, would make conjectural emendations in the text, which seem to
us to be inadmissible.
 The ancients erroneously supposed that the arteries were
air-vessels, from the fact that these organs, after death, appear quite
Chapter IV.—Those persons are deceived who feign another God the Father
besides the Creator of the world; for he must have been feeble and useless, or
else malignant and full of envy, if he be either unable or unwilling to extend
external life to our bodies.
1. Those persons who feign the existence of another Father beyond the
Creator, and who term him the good God, do deceive themselves; for they
introduce him as a feeble, worthless, and negligent being, not to say
malign and full of envy, inasmuch as they affirm that our bodies are
not quickened by him. For when they say of things which it is manifest
to all do remain immortal, such as the spirit and the soul, and such
other things, that they are quickened by the Father, but that another
thing [viz. the body] which is quickened in no different manner than by
God granting [life] to it, is abandoned by life,--[they must either
confess] that this proves their Father to be weak and powerless, or
else envious and malignant. For since the Creator does even here
quicken our mortal bodies, and promises them resurrection by the
prophets, as I have pointed out; who [in that case] is shown to be more
powerful, stronger, or truly good? Whether is it the Creator who
vivifies the whole man, or is it their Father, falsely so called? He
feigns to be the quickener of those things which are immortal by
nature, to which things life is always present by their very nature;
but he does not benevolently quicken those things which required his
assistance, that they might live, but leaves them carelessly to fall
under the power of death. Whether is it the case, then, that their
Father does not bestow life upon them when he has the power of so
doing, or is it that he does not possess the power? If, on the one
hand, it is because he cannot, he is, upon that supposition, not a
powerful being, nor is he more perfect than the Creator; for the
Creator grants, as we must perceive, what He is unable to afford. But
if, on the other hand, [it be that he does not grant this] when he has
the power of so doing, then he is proved to be not a good, but an envious and malignant Father.
2. If, again, they refer to any cause on account of which their Father
does not impart life to bodies, then that cause must necessarily appear
superior to the Father, since it restrains Him from the exercise of His
benevolence; and His benevolence will thus be proved weak, on account
of that cause which they bring forward. Now every one must perceive
that bodies are capable of receiving life. For they live to the extent
that God pleases that they should live; and that being so, the
[heretics] cannot maintain that [these bodies] are utterly incapable of
Chapter V.—The prolonged life of the ancients, the translation of Elijah and
of Enoch in their own bodies, as well as the preservation of Jonah, of
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, in the midst of extreme peril, are clear
demonstrations that God can raise up our bodies to life eternal.
1. [In order to learn] that bodies did continue in existence for a lengthened period, as long as it was God’s good pleasure that they should flourish, let [these heretics] read the Scriptures, and they will find that our predecessors advanced beyond seven hundred, eight
hundred, and nine hundred years of age; and that their bodies kept pace
with the protracted length of their days, and participated in life as
long as God willed that they should live. But why do I refer to these
men? For Enoch, when he pleased God, was translated in the same body in
which he did please Him, thus pointing out by anticipation the
translation of the just. Elijah, too, was caught up [when he was yet]
in the substance of the [natural] form; thus exhibiting in prophecy the
assumption of those who are spiritual, and that nothing stood in the
way of their body being translated and caught up. For by means of the
very same hands through which they were moulded at the beginning, did
they receive this translation and assumption. For in Adam the hands of
God had become accustomed to set in order, to rule, and to sustain His
own workmanship, and to bring it and place it where they pleased.
Where, then, was the first man placed? In paradise certainly, as the
Scripture declares “And God planted a garden [paradisum] eastward in
Eden, and there He placed the man whom He had formed.”  And then
afterwards when [man] proved disobedient, he was cast out thence into
this world. Wherefore also the elders who were disciples of the
apostles tell us that those who were translated were transferred to
that place (for paradise has been prepared for righteous men, such as
have the Spirit; in which place also Paul the apostle, when he was
caught up, heard words which are unspeakable as regards us in our
present condition  ), and that there shall they who have been
translated remain until the consummation [of all things], as a prelude
2. If, however, any one imagine it impossible that men should survive
for such a length of time, and that Elias was not caught up in the
flesh, but that his flesh was consumed in the fiery chariot, let him
consider that Jonah, when he had been cast into the deep, and swallowed
down into the whale’s belly, was by the command of God again thrown out
safe upon the land.  And then, again, when Ananias, Azarias, and
Mishael were cast into the furnace of fire sevenfold heated, they
sustained no harm whatever, neither was the smell of fire perceived
upon them. As, therefore, the hand of God was present with them,
working out marvellous things in their case--[things] impossible [to be
accomplished] by man’s nature—what wonder was it, if also in the case
of those who were translated it performed something wonderful, working
in obedience to the will of God, even the Father? Now this is the Son
of God, as the Scripture represents Nebuchadnezzar the king as having
said, “Did not we cast three men bound into the furnace? and, lo, I do
see four walking in the midst of the fire, and the fourth is like the
Son of God.”  Neither the nature of any created thing, therefore,
nor the weakness of the flesh, can prevail against the will of God. For
God is not subject to created things, but created things to God; and
all things yield obedience to His will. Wherefore also the Lord
declares, “The things which are impossible with men, are possible with
God.”  As, therefore, it might seem to the men of the present
day, who are ignorant of God’s appointment, to be a thing incredible
and impossible that any man could live for such a number of years, yet
those who were before us did live [to such an age], and those who were
translated do live as an earnest of the future length of days; and [as
it might also appear impossible] that from the whale’s belly and from
the fiery furnace men issued forth unhurt, yet they nevertheless did
so, led forth as it were by the hand of God, for the purpose of
declaring His power: so also now, although some, not knowing the power
 Gen. ii. 8.
 2 Cor. xii. 4.
 Jon. ii. 11.
 Dan. iii. 19-25.
Chapter VI.—God will bestow salvation upon the whole nature of man,
consisting of body and soul in close union, since the Word took it upon Him,
and adorned with the gifts of the Holy Spirit, of whom our bodies are, and are
termed, the temples.
1. Now God shall be glorified in His handiwork, fitting it so as to be
conformable to, and modelled after, His own Son. For by the hands of
the Father, that is, by the Son and the Holy Spirit, man, and not
[merely] a part of man, was made in the likeness of God. Now the soul
and the spirit are certainly a part of the man, but certainly not the
man; for the perfect man consists in the commingling and the union of
the soul receiving the spirit of the Father, and the admixture of that
fleshly nature which was moulded after the image of God. For this
reason does the apostle declare, “We speak wisdom among them that are
perfect,”  terming those persons “perfect” who have received the
Spirit of God, and who through the Spirit of God do speak in all
languages, as he used Himself also to speak. In like manner we do also
hear  many brethren in the Church, who possess prophetic gifts,
and who through the Spirit speak all kinds of languages, and bring to
light for the general benefit the hidden things of men, and declare the
mysteries of God, whom also the apostle terms “spiritual,” they being
spiritual because they partake of the Spirit, and not because their
flesh has been stripped off and taken away, and because they have
become purely spiritual. For if any one take away the substance of
flesh, that is, of the handiwork [of God], and understand that which is
purely spiritual, such then would not be a spiritual man but would be
the spirit of a man, or the Spirit of God. But when the spirit here
blended with the soul is united to [God’s] handiwork, the man is
rendered spiritual and perfect because of the outpouring of the Spirit,
and this is he who was made in the image and likeness of God. But if
the Spirit be wanting to the soul, he who is such is indeed of an
animal nature, and being left carnal, shall be an imperfect being,
possessing indeed the image [of God] in his formation (in plasmate),
but not receiving the similitude through the Spirit; and thus is this
being imperfect. Thus also, if any one take away the image and set
aside the handiwork, he cannot then understand this as being a man, but
as either some part of a man, as I have already said, or as something
else than a man. For that flesh which has been moulded is not a perfect
man in itself, but the body of a man, and part of a man. Neither is the
soul itself, considered apart by itself, the man; but it is the soul of
a man, and part of a man. Neither is the spirit a man, for it is called
the spirit, and not a man; but the commingling and union of all these
constitutes the perfect man. And for this cause does the apostle,
explaining himself, make it clear that the saved man is a complete man
as well as a spiritual man; saying thus in the first Epistle to the
Thessalonians, “Now the God of peace sanctify you perfect (perfectos);
and may your spirit, and soul, and body be preserved whole without
complaint to the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ.”  Now what was
his object in praying that these three—that is, soul, body, and
spirit—might be preserved to the coming of the Lord, unless he was
aware of the [future] reintegration and union of the three, and [that
they should be heirs of] one and the same salvation? For this cause
also he declares that those are “the perfect” who present unto the Lord
the three [component parts] without offence. Those, then, are the
perfect who have had the Spirit of God remaining in them, and have
preserved their souls and bodies blameless, holding fast the faith of
God, that is, that faith which is [directed] towards God, and maintaining righteous dealings with respect to their neighbours.
2. Whence also he says, that this handiwork is “the temple of God,” thus declaring: “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that
the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man, therefore, will defile
the temple of God, him will God destroy: for the temple of God is holy,
which [temple] ye are.”  Here he manifestly declares the body to
be the temple in which the Spirit dwells. As also the Lord speaks in
reference to Himself, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will
raise it up. He spake this, however,” it is said, “of the temple of His
body.”  And not only does he (the apostle) acknowledge our bodies
to be a temple, but even the temple of Christ, saying thus to the
Corinthians, “Know ye not that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall
I then take the members of Christ, and make them the members of an
harlot?”  He speaks these things, not in reference to some other
spiritual man; for a being of such a nature could have nothing to do
with an harlot: but he declares “our body,” that is, the flesh which
continues in sanctity and purity, to be “the members of Christ;” but
that when it becomes one with an harlot, it becomes the members of an
harlot. And for this reason he said, “If any man defile the temple of
God, him will God destroy.” How then is it not the utmost blasphemy to
allege, that the temple of God, in which the Spirit of the Father
dwells, and the members of Christ, do not partake of salvation, but are
reduced to perdition? Also, that our bodies are raised not from their
own substance, but by the power of God, he says to the Corinthians,
“Now the body is not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord
for the body. But God hath both raised up the Lord, and shall raise us
 1 Cor. ii. 6.
 The old Latin has “audivimus,” have heard.
 1 Thess. v. 23. [I have before referred the student to the
“Biblical Psychology” of Prof. Delitzsch (translation), T. & T. Clark,
 1 Cor. iii. 16.
 John ii. 19-21.
 1 Cor. iii. 17.
Chapter VII.—Inasmuch as Christ did rise in our flesh, it follows that we
shall be also raised in the same; since the resurrection promised to us should
not be referred to spirits naturally immortal, but to bodies in themselves
1. In the same manner, therefore, as Christ did rise in the substance
of flesh, and pointed out to His disciples the mark of the nails and
the opening in His side  (now these are the tokens of that flesh
which rose from the dead), so “shall He also,” it is said, “raise us up
by His own power.”  And again to the Romans he says, “But if the
Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that
raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies.”
 What, then, are mortal bodies? Can they be souls? Nay, for souls
are incorporeal when put in comparison with mortal bodies; for God
“breathed into the face of man the breath of life, and man became a
living soul.” Now the breath of life is an incorporeal thing. And
certainly they cannot maintain that the very breath of life is mortal.
Therefore David says, “My soul also shall live to Him,”  just as
if its substance were immortal. Neither, on the other hand, can they
say that the spirit is the mortal body. What therefore is there left to
which we may apply the term “mortal body,” unless it be the thing that
was moulded, that is, the flesh, of which it is also said that God will
vivify it? For this it is which dies and is decomposed, but not the
soul or the spirit. For to die is to lose vital power, and to become
henceforth breathless, inanimate, and devoid of motion, and to melt
away into those [component parts] from which also it derived the
commencement of [its] substance. But this event happens neither to the
soul, for it is the breath of life; nor to the spirit, for the spirit
is simple and not composite, so that it cannot be decomposed, and is
itself the life of those who receive it. We must therefore conclude
that it is in reference to the flesh that death is mentioned; which
[flesh], after the soul’s departure, becomes breathless and inanimate,
and is decomposed gradually into the earth from which it was taken.
This, then, is what is mortal. And it is this of which he also says,
“He shall also quicken your mortal bodies.” And therefore in reference
to it he says, in the first [Epistle] to the Corinthians: “So also is
the resurrection of the dead: it is sown in corruption, it rises in
incorruption.”  For he declares, “That which thou sowest cannot
be quickened, unless first it die.” 
2. But what is that which, like a grain of wheat, is sown in the earth
and decays, unless it be the bodies which are laid in the earth, into
which seeds are also cast? And for this reason he said, “It is sown in
dishonour, it rises in glory.”  For what is more ignoble than
dead flesh? Or, on the other hand, what is more glorious than the same
when it arises and partakes of incorruption? “It is sown in weakness,
it is raised in power:”  in its own weakness certainly, because
since it is earth it goes to earth; but [it is quickened] by the power
of God, who raises it from the dead. “It is sown an animal body, it
rises a spiritual body.”  He has taught, beyond all doubt, that
such language was not used by him, either with reference to the soul or
to the spirit, but to bodies that have become corpses. For these are
animal bodies, that is, [bodies] which partake of life, which when they
have lost, they succumb to death; then, rising through the Spirit’s
instrumentality, they become spiritual bodies, so that by the Spirit
they possess a perpetual life. “For now,” he says, “we know in part,
and we prophesy in part, but then face to face.”  And this it is
which has been said also by Peter: “Whom having not seen, ye love; in
whom now also, not seeing, ye believe; and believing, ye shall rejoice
 John xx. 20, 25-27.
 1 Cor. vi. 14.
 Rom. viii. 11.
 Ps. xxii. 31, LXX.
 1 Cor. xv. 42.
 1 Cor. xv. 36.
 1 Cor. xv. 43.
 1 Cor. xv. 43.
 1 Cor. xv. 44.
 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 12.
 1 Pet. i. 8.
Chapter VIII.—The gifts of the Holy Spirit which we receive prepare us for
incorruption, render us spiritual, and separate us from carnal men. These two
classes are signified by the clean and unclean animals in the legal dispensation.
1. But we do now receive a certain portion of His Spirit, tending
towards perfection, and preparing us for incorruption, being little by
little accustomed to receive and bear God; which also the apostle terms
“an earnest,” that is, a part of the honour which has been promised us
by God, where he says in the Epistle to the Ephesians, “In which ye
also, having heard the word of truth, the Gospel of your salvation,
believing in which we have been sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise,
which is the earnest of our inheritance.”  This earnest,
therefore, thus dwelling in us, renders us spiritual even now, and the
mortal is swallowed up by immortality.  “For ye,” he declares,
“are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of
God dwell in you.”  This, however, does not take place by a
casting away of the flesh, but by the impartation of the Spirit. For
those to whom he was writing were not without flesh, but they were
those who had received the Spirit of God, “by which we cry, Abba,
Father.”  If therefore, at the present time, having the earnest,
we do cry, “Abba, Father,” what shall it be when, on rising again, we
behold Him face to face; when all the members shall burst out into a
continuous hymn of triumph, glorifying Him who raised them from the
dead, and gave the gift of eternal life? For if the earnest, gathering
man into itself, does even now cause him to cry, “Abba, Father,” what
shall the complete grace of the Spirit effect, which shall be given to
men by God? It will render us like unto Him, and accomplish the will  of the Father; for it shall make man after the image and likeness of God.
2. Those persons, then, who possess the earnest of the Spirit, and who
are not enslaved by the lusts of the flesh, but are subject to the
Spirit, and who in all things walk according to the light of reason,
does the apostle properly term “spiritual,” because the Spirit of God
dwells in them. Now, spiritual men shall not be incorporeal spirits;
but our substance, that is, the union of flesh and spirit, receiving
the Spirit of God, makes up the spiritual man. But those who do indeed
reject the Spirit’s counsel, and are the slaves of fleshly lusts, and
lead lives contrary to reason, and who, without restraint, plunge
headlong into their own desires, having no longing after the Divine
Spirit, do live after the manner of swine and of dogs; these men, [I
say], does the apostle very properly term “carnal,” because they have
no thought of anything else except carnal things.
3. For the same reason, too, do the prophets compare them to irrational
animals, on account of the irrationality of their conduct, saying,
“They have become as horses raging for the females; each one of them
neighing after his neighbour’s wife.”  And again, “Man, when he
was in honour, was made like unto cattle.”  This denotes that, for his own fault, he is likened to cattle, by rivalling their irrational life. And we also, as the custom is, do designate men of this stamp as cattle and irrational beasts.
4. Now the law has figuratively predicted all these, delineating man by
the [various] animals:  whatsoever of these, says [the
Scripture], have a double hoof and ruminate, it proclaims as clean; but
whatsoever of them do not possess one or other of these [properties],
it sets aside by themselves as unclean. Who then are the clean? Those
who make their way by faith steadily towards the Father and the Son;
for this is denoted by the steadiness of those which divide the hoof;
and they meditate day and night upon the words of God,  that they
may be adorned with good works: for this is the meaning of the
ruminants. The unclean, however, are those which do neither divide the
hoof nor ruminate; that is, those persons who have neither faith in
God, nor do meditate on His words: and such is the abomination of the
Gentiles. But as to those animals which do indeed chew the cud, but
have not the double hoof, and are themselves unclean, we have in them a
figurative description of the Jews, who certainly have the words of God
in their mouth, but who do not fix their rooted stedfastness in the
Father and in the Son; wherefore they are an unstable generation. For
those animals which have the hoof all in one piece easily slip; but
those which have it divided are more sure-footed, their cleft hoofs
succeeding each other as they advance, and the one hoof supporting the
other. In like manner, too, those are unclean which have the double
hoof but do not ruminate: this is plainly an indication of all
heretics, and of those who do not meditate on the words of God, neither
are adorned with works of righteousness; to whom also the Lord says,
“Why call ye Me Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say to you?” For men of this stamp do indeed say that they believe in the Father and the Son, but they never meditate as they should upon the things of God, neither are they adorned with works of righteousness;
but, as I have already observed, they have adopted the lives of swine
and of dogs, giving themselves over to filthiness, to gluttony, and
recklessness of all sorts. Justly, therefore, did the apostle call all
such “carnal” and “animal,”  --[all those, namely], who through
their own unbelief and luxury do not receive the Divine Spirit, and in
their various phases cast out from themselves the life-giving Word, and
walk stupidly after their own lusts: the prophets, too, spake of them
as beasts of burden and wild beasts; custom likewise has viewed them in
 Eph. i. 13, etc.
 2 Cor. v. 4.
 Rom. viii. 9.
 Rom. viii. 15.
 This is adopting Harvey’s emendation of “voluntatem” for “voluntate.”
 Jer. v. 3.
 Ps. xlix. 20.
 Lev. xi. 2; Deut. xiv. 3, etc.
 Ps. i. 2.
 Luke vi. 46.
Chapter IX.—Showing how that passage of the apostle which the heretics
pervert, should be understood; viz., “Flesh and blood shall not possess the
kingdom of God.”
1. Among the other [truths] proclaimed by the apostle, there is also this one, “That flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God.”
 This is [the passage] which is adduced by all the heretics in
support of their folly, with an attempt to annoy us, and to point out
that the handiwork of God is not saved. They do not take this fact into
consideration, that there are three things out of which, as I have
shown, the complete man is composed—flesh, soul, and spirit. One of
these does indeed preserve and fashion [the man]--this is the spirit;
while as to another it is united and formed—that is the flesh; then
[comes] that which is between these two—that is the soul, which
sometimes indeed, when it follows the spirit, is raised up by it, but
sometimes it sympathizes with the flesh, and falls into carnal lusts.
Those then, as many as they be, who have not that which saves and forms
[us] into life [eternal], shall be, and shall be called, [mere] flesh
and blood; for these are they who have not the Spirit of God in themselves. Wherefore men of this stamp are spoken of by the Lord as “dead;” for, says He, “Let the dead bury their dead,”  because they have not the Spirit which quickens man.
2. On the other hand, as many as fear God and trust in His Son’s
advent, and who through faith do establish the Spirit of God in their
hearts,--such men as these shall be properly called both “pure,” and
“spiritual,” and “those living to God,” because they possess the Spirit
of the Father, who purifies man, and raises him up to the life of God.
For as the Lord has testified that “the flesh is weak,” so [does He
also say] that “the spirit is willing.”  For this latter is
capable of working out its own suggestions. If, therefore, any one
admix the ready inclination of the Spirit to be, as it were, a stimulus
to the infirmity of the flesh, it inevitably follows that what is
strong will prevail over the weak, so that the weakness of the flesh
will be absorbed by the strength of the Spirit; and that the man in
whom this takes place cannot in that case be carnal, but spiritual,
because of the fellowship of the Spirit. Thus it is, therefore, that
the martyrs bear their witness, and despise death, not after the
infirmity of the flesh, but because of the readiness of the Spirit. For
when the infirmity of the flesh is absorbed, it exhibits the Spirit as
powerful; and again, when the Spirit absorbs the weakness [of the flesh], it possesses the flesh as an inheritance in itself, and from both of these is formed a living man,--living, indeed, because he partakes of the Spirit, but man, because of the substance of flesh.
3. The flesh, therefore, when destitute of the Spirit of God, is dead,
not having life, and cannot possess the kingdom of God: [it is as]
irrational blood, like water poured out upon the ground. And therefore
he says, “As is the earthy, such are they that are earthy.”  But
where the Spirit of the Father is, there is a living man; [there is]
the rational blood preserved by God for the avenging [of those that
shed it]; [there is] the flesh possessed by the Spirit, forgetful
indeed of what belongs to it, and adopting the quality of the Spirit,
being made conformable to the Word of God. And on this account he (the
apostle) declares, “As we have borne the image of him who is of the
earth, we shall also bear the image of Him who is from heaven.” 
What, therefore, is the earthly? That which was fashioned. And what is
the heavenly? The Spirit. As therefore he says, when we were destitute
of the celestial Spirit, we walked in former times in the oldness of
the flesh, not obeying God; so now let us, receiving the Spirit, walk
in newness of life, obeying God. Inasmuch, therefore, as without the
Spirit of God we cannot be saved, the apostle exhorts us through faith
and chaste conversation to preserve the Spirit of God, lest, having
become non-participators of the Divine Spirit, we lose the kingdom of
heaven; and he exclaims, that flesh in itself, and blood, cannot possess the kingdom of God.
4. If, however, we must speak strictly, [we would say that] the flesh
does not inherit, but is inherited; as also the Lord declares, “Blessed
are the meek, for they shall possess the earth by inheritance;” 
as if in the [future] kingdom, the earth, from whence exists the
substance of our flesh, is to be possessed by inheritance. This is the
reason for His wishing the temple (i.e., the flesh) to be clean, that
the Spirit of God may take delight therein, as a bridegroom with a
bride. As, therefore, the bride cannot [be said] to wed, but to be
wedded, when the bridegroom comes and takes her, so also the flesh
cannot by itself possess the kingdom of God by inheritance; but it can
be taken for an inheritance into the kingdom of God. For a living
person inherits the goods of the deceased; and it is one thing to
inherit, another to be inherited. The former rules, and exercises power
over, and orders the things inherited at his will; but the latter
things are in a state of subjection, are under order, and are ruled
over by him who has obtained the inheritance. What, therefore, is it
that lives? The Spirit of God, doubtless. What, again, are the
possessions of the deceased? The various parts of the man, surely,
which rot in the earth. But these are inherited by the Spirit when they
are translated into the kingdom of heaven. For this cause, too, did
Christ die, that the Gospel covenant being manifested and known to the
whole world, might in the first place set free His slaves; and then
afterwards, as I have already shown, might constitute them heirs of His
property, when the Spirit possesses them by inheritance. For he who lives inherits, but the flesh is inherited. In order that we may not lose life by losing that Spirit which possesses us, the apostle, exhorting us to the communion of the Spirit, has said, according to reason, in those words already quoted, “That flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God.” Just as if he were to say, “Do not err;
for unless the Word of God dwell with, and the Spirit of the Father be
in you, and if ye shall live frivolously and carelessly as if ye were
this only, viz., mere flesh and blood, ye cannot inherit the kingdom of
 1 Cor. xv. 50.
 Luke x. 60.
 Matt. xxvi. 41.
 1 Cor. xv. 48.
 1 Cor. xv. 49.
Chapter X.—By a comparison drawn from the wild olive-tree, whose quality but
not whose nature is changed by grafting, he proves more important things; he
points out also that man without the Spirit is not capable of bringing forth
fruit, or of inheriting the kingdom of God.
1. This truth, therefore, [he declares], in order that we may not reject the engrafting of the Spirit while pampering the flesh. “But thou, being a wild olive-tree,” he says, “hast been grafted into the good olive-tree, and been made a partaker of the fatness of the olive-tree.”  As, therefore, when the wild olive has been
engrafted, if it remain in its former condition, viz., a wild olive, it
is “cut off, and cast into the fire;”  but if it takes kindly to
the graft, and is changed into the good olive-tree, it becomes a
fruit-bearing olive, planted, as it were, in a king’s park (paradiso):
so likewise men, if they do truly progress by faith towards better
things, and receive the Spirit of God, and bring forth the fruit
thereof, shall be spiritual, as being planted in the paradise of God.
But if they cast out the Spirit, and remain in their former condition,
desirous of being of the flesh rather than of the Spirit, then it is
very justly said with regard to men of this stamp, “That flesh and
blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God;”  just as if any one
were to say that the wild olive is not received into the paradise of
God. Admirably therefore does the apostle exhibit our nature, and God’s
universal appointment, in his discourse about flesh and blood and the
wild olive. For as the good olive, if neglected for a certain time, if
left to grow wild and to run to wood, does itself become a wild olive;
or again, if the wild olive be carefully tended and grafted, it
naturally reverts to its former fruit-bearing condition: so men also,
when they become careless, and bring forth for fruit the lusts of the
flesh like woody produce, are rendered, by their own fault, unfruitful
in righteousness. For when men sleep, the enemy sows the material of
tares;  and for this cause did the Lord command His disciples to
be on the watch.  And again, those persons who are not bringing
forth the fruits of righteousness, and are, as it were, covered over
and lost among brambles, if they use diligence, and receive the word of
God as a graft,  arrive at the pristine nature of man—that which
was created after the image and likeness of God.
2. But as the engrafted wild olive does not certainly lose the substance of its wood, but changes the quality of its fruit, and
receives another name, being now not a wild olive, but a fruit-bearing
olive, and is called so; so also, when man is grafted in by faith and
receives the Spirit of God, he certainly does not lose the substance of
flesh, but changes the quality of the fruit [brought forth, i.e.,] of
his works, and receives another name,  showing that he has become
changed for the better, being now not [mere] flesh and blood, but a
spiritual man, and is called such. Then, again, as the wild olive, if
it be not grafted in, remains useless to its lord because of its woody
quality, and is cut down as a tree bearing no fruit, and cast into the
fire; so also man, if he does not receive through faith the engrafting
of the Spirit, remains in his old condition, and being [mere] flesh and
blood, he cannot inherit the kingdom of God. Rightly therefore does the
apostle declare, “Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God;”
 and, “Those who are in the flesh cannot please God:”  not
repudiating [by these words] the substance of flesh, but showing that
into it the Spirit must be infused.  And for this reason, he
says, “This mortal must put on immortality, and this corruptible must
put on incorruption.”  And again he declares, “But ye are not in
the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in
you.”  He sets this forth still more plainly, where he says, “The
body indeed is dead, because of sin; but the Spirit is life, because of
righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies, because of His Spirit dwelling in you.”
 And again he says, in the Epistle to the Romans, “For if ye live
after the flesh, ye shall die.”  [Now by these words] he does not
prohibit them from living their lives in the flesh, for he was himself
in the flesh when he wrote to them; but he cuts away the lusts of the
flesh, those which bring death upon a man. And for this reason he says
in continuation, “But if ye through the Spirit do mortify the works of
the flesh, ye shall live. For whosoever are led by the Spirit of God,
 Rom. xi. 17.
 Matt. vii. 19.
 1 Cor. xv. 50.
 Matt. xiii. 25.
 Matt. xxiv. 42, Matt. xxv. 13; Mark xiii. 33.
 Jas. i. 21.
 Rev. ii. 17.
 1 Cor. xv. 50.
 Rom. viii. 8.
 The Latin has, “sed infusionem Spiritus attrahens.”
 1 Cor. xv. 53.
 Rom. viii. 9.
 Rom. viii. 10, etc.
Chapter XI.—Treats upon the actions of carnal and of spiritual persons; also,
that the spiritual cleansing is not to be referred to the substance of our
bodies, but to the manner of our former life.
1. [The apostle], foreseeing the wicked speeches of unbelievers, has particularized the works which he terms carnal; and he explains himself, lest any room for doubt be left to those who do dishonestly
pervert his meaning, thus saying in the Epistle to the Galatians: “Now
the works of the flesh are manifest, which are adulteries,
fornications, uncleanness, luxuriousness, idolatries, witchcrafts,
 hatreds, contentions, jealousies, wraths, emulations,
animosities, irritable speeches, dissensions, heresies, envyings,
drunkenness, carousings, and such like; of which I warn you, as also I
have warned you, that they who do such things shall not inherit the
kingdom of God.”  Thus does he point out to his hearers in a more
explicit manner what it is [he means when he declares], “Flesh and
blood shall not inherit the kingdom of God.” For they who do these
things, since they do indeed walk after the flesh, have not the power
of living unto God. And then, again, he proceeds to tell us the
spiritual actions which vivify a man, that is, the engrafting of the
Spirit; thus saying, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace,
long-suffering, goodness, benignity, faith, meekness, continence,
chastity: against these there is no law.”  As, therefore, he who
has gone forward to the better things, and has brought forth the fruit
of the Spirit, is saved altogether because of the communion of the
Spirit; so also he who has continued in the aforesaid works of the
flesh, being truly reckoned as carnal, because he did not receive the
Spirit of God, shall not have power to inherit the kingdom of heaven.
As, again, the same apostle testifies, saying to the Corinthians, “Know
ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Do
not err,” he says: “neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers,
nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves,
nor covetous, nor revilers, nor rapacious persons, shall inherit the
kingdom of God. And these ye indeed have been; but ye have been washed,
but ye have been sanctified, but ye have been justified in the name of
the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.”  He shows
in the clearest manner through what things it is that man goes to
destruction, if he has continued to live after the flesh; and then, on
the other hand, [he points out] through what things he is saved. Now he
says that the things which save are the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,
and the Spirit of our God.
2. Since, therefore, in that passage he recounts those works of the flesh which are without the Spirit, which bring death [upon their
doers], he exclaimed at the end of his Epistle, in accordance with what
he had already declared, “And as we have borne the image of him who is
of the earth, we shall also bear the image of Him who is from heaven.
For this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the
kingdom of God.”  Now this which he says, “as we have borne the
image of him who is of the earth,” is analogous to what has been
declared, “And such indeed ye were; but ye have been washed, but ye
have been sanctified, but ye have been justified in the name of our
Lord Jesus Christ, and in the Spirit of our God.” When, therefore, did
we bear the image of him who is of the earth? Doubtless it was when
those actions spoken of as “works of the flesh” used to be wrought in
us. And then, again, when [do we bear] the image of the heavenly?
Doubtless when he says, “Ye have been washed,” believing in the name of
the Lord, and receiving His Spirit. Now we have washed away, not the
substance of our body, nor the image of our [primary] formation, but
the former vain conversation. In these members, therefore, in which we
were going to destruction by working the works of corruption, in these
 Or, “poisonings.”
 Gal. v. 19, etc.
 Gal. v. 22.
 1 Cor. vi. 9-11.
Chapter XII.—Of the difference between life and death; of the breath of life
and the vivifying Spirit: also how it is that the substance of flesh revives
which once was dead.
1. For as the flesh is capable of corruption, so is it also of
incorruption; and as it is of death, so is it also of life. These two
do mutually give way to each other; and both cannot remain in the same
place, but one is driven out by the other, and the presence of the one
destroys that of the other. If, then, when death takes possession of a
man, it drives life away from him, and proves him to be dead, much more
does life, when it has obtained power over the man, drive out death,
and restore him as living unto God. For if death brings mortality, why
should not life, when it comes, vivify man? Just as Esaias the prophet
says, “Death devoured when it had prevailed.”  And again, “God has wiped away every tear from every face.” Thus that former life is expelled, because it was not given by the Spirit, but by the breath.
2. For the breath of life, which also rendered man an animated being,
is one thing, and the vivifying Spirit another, which also caused him
to become spiritual. And for this reason Isaiah said, “Thus saith the
Lord, who made heaven and established it, who founded the earth and the
things therein, and gave breath to the people upon it, and Spirit to
those walking upon it;”  thus telling us that breath is indeed
given in common to all people upon earth, but that the Spirit is theirs
alone who tread down earthly desires. And therefore Isaiah himself,
distinguishing the things already mentioned, again exclaims, “For the
Spirit shall go forth from Me, and I have made every breath.” 
Thus does he attribute the Spirit as peculiar to God which in the last
times He pours forth upon the human race by the adoption of sons; but
[he shows] that breath was common throughout the creation, and points
it out as something created. Now what has been made is a different
thing from him who makes it. The breath, then, is temporal, but the
Spirit eternal. The breath, too, increases [in strength] for a short
period, and continues for a certain time; after that it takes its
departure, leaving its former abode destitute of breath. But when the
Spirit pervades the man within and without, inasmuch as it continues
there, it never leaves him. “But that is not first which is spiritual,”
says the apostle, speaking this as if with reference to us human
beings; “but that is first which is animal, afterwards that which is
spiritual,”  in accordance with reason. For there had been a
necessity that, in the first place, a human being should be fashioned,
and that what was fashioned should receive the soul; afterwards that it
should thus receive the communion of the Spirit. Wherefore also “the
first Adam was made” by the Lord “a living soul, the second Adam a
quickening spirit.”  As, then, he who was made a living soul
forfeited life when he turned aside to what was evil, so, on the other
hand, the same individual, when he reverts to what is good, and receives the quickening Spirit, shall find life.
3. For it is not one thing which dies and another which is quickened,
as neither is it one thing which is lost and another which is found,
but the Lord came seeking for that same sheep which had been lost. What
was it, then, which was dead? Undoubtedly it was the substance of the
flesh; the same, too, which had lost the breath of life, and had become
breathless and dead. This same, therefore, was what the Lord came to
quicken, that as in Adam we do all die, as being of an animal nature,
in Christ we may all live, as being spiritual, not laying aside God’s
handiwork, but the lusts of the flesh, and receiving the Holy Spirit;
as the apostle says in the Epistle to the Colossians: “Mortify,
therefore, your members which are upon the earth.” And what these are
he himself explains: “Fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection,
evil concupiscence; and covetousness, which is idolatry.”  The
laying aside of these is what the apostle preaches; and he declares
that those who do such things, as being merely flesh and blood, cannot
inherit the kingdom of heaven. For their soul, tending towards what is
worse, and descending to earthly lusts, has become a partaker in the
same designation which belongs to these [lusts, viz., “earthly”],
which, when the apostle commands us to lay aside, he says in the same
Epistle, “Cast ye off the old man with his deeds.”  But when he
said this, he does not remove away the ancient formation [of man]; for
in that case it would be incumbent on us to rid ourselves of its company by committing suicide.
4. But the apostle himself also, being one who had been formed in a
womb, and had issued thence, wrote to us, and confessed in his Epistle
to the Philippians that “to live in the flesh was the fruit of [his]
work;”  thus expressing himself. Now the final result of the work
of the Spirit is the salvation of the flesh.  For what other
visible fruit is there of the invisible Spirit, than the rendering of
the flesh mature and capable of incorruption? If then [he says], “To
live in the flesh, this is the result of labour to me,” he did not
surely contemn the substance of flesh in that passage where he said,
“Put ye off the old man with his works;”  but he points out that
we should lay aside our former conversation, that which waxes old and
becomes corrupt; and for this reason he goes on to say, “And put ye on
the new man, that which is renewed in knowledge, after the image of Him
who created him.” In this, therefore, that he says, “which is renewed
in knowledge,” he demonstrates that he, the selfsame man who was in
ignorance in times past, that is, in ignorance of God, is renewed by
that knowledge which has respect to Him. For the knowledge of God
renews man. And when he says, “after the image of the Creator,” he sets
forth the recapitulation of the same man, who was at the beginning made
after the likeness of God.
5. And that he, the apostle, was the very same person who had been born
from the womb, that is, of the ancient substance of flesh, he does
himself declare in the Epistle to the Galatians: “But when it pleased
God, who separated me from my mother’s womb, and called me by His
grace, to reveal His Son in me, that I might preach Him among the
Gentiles,”  it was not, as I have already observed, one person
who had been born from the womb, and another who preached the Gospel of
the Son of God; but that same individual who formerly was ignorant, and
used to persecute the Church, when the revelation was made to him from
heaven, and the Lord conferred with him, as I have pointed out in the
third book,  preached the Gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God,
who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, his former ignorance being
driven out by his subsequent knowledge: just as the blind men whom the
Lord healed did certainly lose their blindness, but received the
substance of their eyes perfect, and obtained the power of vision in
the very same eyes with which they formerly did not see; the darkness
being merely driven away by the power of vision, while the substance of
the eyes was retained, in order that, by means of those eyes through
which they had not seen, exercising again the visual power, they might
give thanks to Him who had restored them again to sight. And thus,
also, he whose withered hand was healed, and all who were healed
generally, did not change those parts of their bodies which had at
their birth come forth from the womb, but simply obtained these anew in
a healthy condition.
6. For the Maker of all things, the Word of God, who did also from the
beginning form man, when He found His handiwork impaired by wickedness,
performed upon it all kinds of healing. At one time [He did so], as
regards each separate member, as it is found in His own handiwork; and
at another time He did once for all restore man sound and whole in all
points, preparing him perfect for Himself unto the resurrection. For
what was His object in healing [different] portions of the flesh, and
restoring them to their original condition, if those parts which had
been healed by Him were not in a position to obtain salvation? For if
it was [merely] a temporary benefit which He conferred, He granted
nothing of importance to those who were the subjects of His healing. Or
how can they maintain that the flesh is incapable of receiving the life
which flows from Him, when it received healing from Him? For life is
brought about through healing, and incorruption through life. He,
therefore, who confers healing, the same does also confer life; and He
 Isa. xxv. 8, LXX.
 Isa. xlii. 5.
 Isa. lvii. 16.
 1 Cor. xv. 46.
 1 Cor. xv. 45.
 Col. iii. 5.
 Col. iii. 9.
 Phil. i. 22.
 Following Harvey’s explanation of a somewhat obscure passage.
 Col. iii. 10.
 Gal. i. 15, 16.
Chapter XIII.—In the dead who were raised by Christ we possess the highest
proof of the resurrection; and our hearts are shown to be capable of life
eternal, because they can now receive the Spirit of God.
1. Let our opponents—that is, they who speak against their own
salvation—inform us [as to this point]: The deceased daughter of the
high priest;  the widow’s dead son, who was being carried out [to
burial] near the gate [of the city];  and Lazarus, who had lain
four days in the tomb,  --in what bodies did they rise again? In
those same, no doubt, in which they had also died. For if it were not
in the very same, then certainly those same individuals who had died
did not rise again. For [the Scripture] says, “The Lord took the hand
of the dead man, and said to him, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.
And the dead man sat up, and He commanded that something should be
given him to eat; and He delivered him to his mother.”  Again, He
called Lazarus “with a loud voice, saying, Lazarus, come forth; and he
that was dead came forth bound with bandages, feet and hands.” This was
symbolical of that man who had been bound in sins. And therefore the
Lord said, “Loose him, and let him depart.” As, therefore, those who
were healed were made whole in those members which had in times past
been afflicted; and the dead rose in the identical bodies, their limbs
and bodies receiving health, and that life which was granted by the
Lord, who prefigures eternal things by temporal, and shows that it is
He who is Himself able to extend both healing and life to His
handiwork, that His words concerning its [future] resurrection may also
be believed; so also at the end, when the Lord utters His voice “by the
last trumpet,”  the dead shall be raised, as He Himself declares:
“The hour shall come, in which all the dead which are in the tombs shall hear the voice of the Son of man, and shall come forth; those that have done good to the resurrection of life, and those that have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” 
2. Vain, therefore, and truly miserable, are those who do not choose to
see what is so manifest and clear, but shun the light of truth,
blinding themselves like the tragic OEdipus. And as those who are not
practised in wrestling, when they contend with others, laying hold with
a determined grasp of some part of [their opponent’s] body, really fall
by means of that which they grasp, yet when they fall, imagine that
they are gaining the victory, because they have obstinately kept their
hold upon that part which they seized at the outset, and besides
falling, become subjects of ridicule; so is it with respect to that
[favourite] expression of the heretics: “Flesh and blood cannot inherit
the kingdom of God;” while taking two expressions of Paul’s, without having perceived the apostle’s meaning, or examined critically the force of the terms, but keeping fast hold of the mere expressions by themselves, they die in consequence of their influence (peri autas), overturning as far as in them lies the entire dispensation of God.
3. For thus they will allege that this passage refers to the flesh
strictly so called, and not to fleshly works, as I have pointed out, so
representing the apostle as contradicting himself. For immediately
following, in the same Epistle, he says conclusively, speaking thus in
reference to the flesh: “For this corruptible must put on incorruption,
and this mortal must put on immortality. So, when this mortal shall
have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying which
is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy
sting? O death, where is thy victory?”  Now these words shall be
appropriately said at the time when this mortal and corruptible flesh,
which is subject to death, which also is pressed down by a certain
dominion of death, rising up into life, shall put on incorruption and
immortality. For then, indeed, shall death be truly vanquished, when
that flesh which is held down by it shall go forth from under its
dominion. And again, to the Philippians he says: “But our conversation
is in heaven, from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus,
who shall transfigure the body of our humiliation conformable to the
body of His glory, even as He is able (ita ut possit) according to the
working of His own power.”  What, then, is this “body of
humiliation” which the Lord shall transfigure, [so as to be] conformed
to “the body of His glory?” Plainly it is this body composed of flesh,
which is indeed humbled when it falls into the earth. Now its
transformation [takes place thus], that while it is mortal and
corruptible, it becomes immortal and incorruptible, not after its own
proper substance, but after the mighty working of the Lord, who is able
to invest the mortal with immortality, and the corruptible with
incorruption. And therefore he says,  “that mortality may be
swallowed up of life. He who has perfected us for this very thing is
God, who also has given unto us the earnest of the Spirit.”  He
uses these words most manifestly in reference to the flesh; for the
soul is not mortal, neither is the spirit. Now, what is mortal shall be
swallowed up of life, when the flesh is dead no longer, but remains
living and incorruptible, hymning the praises of God, who has perfected
us for this very thing. In order, therefore, that we may be perfected
for this, aptly does he say to the Corinthians, “Glorify God in your body.”  Now God is He who gives rise to immortality.
4. That he uses these words with respect to the body of flesh, and to
none other, he declares to the Corinthians manifestly, indubitably, and
free from all ambiguity: “Always bearing about in our body the dying of
Jesus,  that also the life of Jesus Christ might be manifested in
our body. For if we who live are delivered unto death for Jesus’ sake,
it is that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our mortal
flesh.”  And that the Spirit lays hold on the flesh, he says in
the same Epistle, “That ye are the epistle of Christ, ministered by us,
inscribed not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God, not in
tables of stone, but in the fleshly tables of the heart.”  If,
therefore, in the present time, fleshly hearts are made partakers of
the Spirit, what is there astonishing if, in the resurrection, they
receive that life which is granted by the Spirit? Of which resurrection
the apostle speaks in the Epistle to the Philippians: “Having been made
conformable to His death, if by any means I might attain to the
resurrection which is from the dead.”  In what other mortal
flesh, therefore, can life be understood as being manifested, unless in
that substance which is also put to death on account of that confession
which is made of God? --as he has himself declared, “If, as a man, I
have fought with beasts  at Ephesus, what advantageth it me if
the dead rise not? For if the dead rise not, neither has Christ risen.
Now, if Christ has not risen, our preaching is vain, and your faith is
vain. In that case, too, we are found false witnesses for God, since we
have testified that He raised up Christ, whom [upon that supposition]
He did not raise up.  For if the dead rise not, neither has
Christ risen. But if Christ be not risen, your faith is vain, since ye
are yet in your sins. Therefore those who have fallen asleep in Christ
have perished. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are more
miserable than all men. But now Christ has risen from the dead, the first-fruits of those that sleep; for as by man [came] death, by man also [came] the resurrection of the dead.” 
5. In all these passages, therefore, as I have already said, these men
must either allege that the apostle expresses opinions contradicting
himself, with respect to that statement, “Flesh and blood cannot
inherit the kingdom of God;” or, on the other hand, they will be forced
to make perverse and crooked interpretations of all the passages, so as
to overturn and alter the sense of the words. For what sensible thing
can they say, if they endeavour to interpret otherwise this which he
writes: “For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal
put on immortality;”  and, “That the life of Jesus may be made
manifest in our mortal flesh;”  and all the other passages in
which the apostle does manifestly and clearly declare the resurrection
and incorruption of the flesh? And thus shall they be compelled to put
 Mark v. 22. Irenaeus confounds the ruler of the synagogue with
the high priest. [Let not those who possess printed Bibles and
concordances and commentaries, and all manner of helps to memory, blame
the Fathers for such mistakes, until they at least equal them in their
marvellous and minute familiarity with the inspired writers.]
 Luke vii. 12.
 John ix. 30.
 The two miracles of raising the widow’s son and the rabbi’s daughter are here amalgamated.
 1 Cor. xv. 52.
 John v. 28.
 1 Cor. xv. 53.
 Phil. iii. 29, etc.
 The original Greek text is preserved here, as above; the Latin
translator inserts, “in secunda ad Corinthios.” Harvey observes: “The
interpretation of the Scriptural reference by the translator suggests
the suspicion that the greater number of such references have come in
from the margin.”
 2 Cor. v. 4.
 1 Cor. vi. 20.
 Agreeing with the Syriac version in omitting “the Lord” before
the word “Jesus,” and in reading aei as ei, which Harvey considers the
 2 Cor. iv. 10, etc.
 2 Cor. iii. 3.
 Phil. iii. 11.
 The Syriac translation seems to take a literal meaning out of this passage: “If, as one of the men, I have been cast forth to the wild beasts at Ephesus.”
 This is in accordance with the Syriac, which omits the clause,
eiper ara nekroi ouk egeirontai.
 1 Cor. xv. 13, etc.
 1 Cor. xv. 53.
Chapter XIV.—Unless the flesh were to be saved, the Word would not have taken
upon Him flesh of the same substance as ours: from this it would follow that
neither should we have been reconciled by Him.
1. And inasmuch as the apostle has not pronounced against the very substance of flesh and blood, that it cannot inherit the kingdom of
God, the same apostle has everywhere adopted the term “flesh and blood”
with regard to the Lord Jesus Christ, partly indeed to establish His
human nature (for He did Himself speak of Himself as the Son of man),
and partly that He might confirm the salvation of our flesh. For if the
flesh were not in a position to be saved, the Word of God would in no
wise have become flesh. And if the blood of the righteous were not to
be inquired after, the Lord would certainly not have had blood [in His
composition]. But inasmuch as blood cries out (vocalis est) from the
beginning [of the world], God said to Cain, when he had slain his
brother, “The voice of thy brother’s blood crieth to Me.”  And as
their blood will be inquired after, He said to those with Noah, “For
your blood of your souls will I require, [even] from the hand of all
beasts;”  and again, “Whosoever will shed man’s blood,  it
shall be shed for his blood.” In like manner, too, did the Lord say to
those who should afterwards shed His blood, “All righteous blood shall
be required which is shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous
Abel to the blood of Zacharias the son of Barachias, whom ye slew
between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these
things shall come upon this generation.”  He thus points out the
recapitulation that should take place in his own person of the effusion
of blood from the beginning, of all the righteous men and of the
prophets, and that by means of Himself there should be a requisition of
their blood. Now this [blood] could not be required unless it also had
the capability of being saved; nor would the Lord have summed up these
things in Himself, unless He had Himself been made flesh and blood after the way of the original formation [of man], saving in his own person at the end that which had in the beginning perished in Adam.
2. But if the Lord became incarnate for any other order of things, and
took flesh of any other substance, He has not then summed up human
nature in His own person, nor in that case can He be termed flesh. For
flesh has been truly made [to consist in] a transmission of that thing
moulded originally from the dust. But if it had been necessary for Him
to draw the material [of His body] from another substance, the Father
would at the beginning have moulded the material [of flesh] from a
different substance [than from what He actually did]. But now the case
stands thus, that the Word has saved that which really was [created,
viz.,] humanity which had perished, effecting by means of Himself that
communion which should be held with it, and seeking out its salvation.
But the thing which had perished possessed flesh and blood. For the
Lord, taking dust from the earth, moulded man; and it was upon his
behalf that all the dispensation of the Lord’s advent took place. He
had Himself, therefore, flesh and blood, recapitulating in Himself not
a certain other, but that original handiwork of the Father, seeking out
that thing which had perished. And for this cause the apostle, in the
Epistle to the Colossians, says, “And though ye were formerly
alienated, and enemies to His knowledge by evil works, yet now ye have
been reconciled in the body of His flesh, through His death, to present
yourselves holy and chaste, and without fault in His sight.”  He
says, “Ye have been reconciled in the body of His flesh,” because the
righteous flesh has reconciled that flesh which was being kept under bondage in sin, and brought it into friendship with God.
3. If, then, any one allege that in this respect the flesh of the Lord
was different from ours, because it indeed did not commit sin, neither
was deceit found in His soul, while we, on the other hand, are sinners,
he says what is the fact. But if he pretends that the Lord possessed
another substance of flesh, the sayings respecting reconciliation will
not agree with that man. For that thing is reconciled which had
formerly been in enmity. Now, if the Lord had taken flesh from another
substance, He would not, by so doing, have reconciled that one to God
which had become inimical through transgression. But now, by means of
communion with Himself, the Lord has reconciled man to God the Father,
in reconciling us to Himself by the body of His own flesh, and
redeeming us by His own blood, as the apostle says to the Ephesians,
“In whom we have redemption through His blood, the remission of sins;”
 and again to the same he says, “Ye who formerly were far off
have been brought near in the blood of Christ;”  and again,
“Abolishing in His flesh the enmities, [even] the law of commandments
[contained] in ordinances.”  And in every Epistle the apostle
plainly testifies, that through the flesh of our Lord, and through His
blood, we have been saved.
4. If, therefore, flesh and blood are the things which procure for us
life, it has not been declared of flesh and blood, in the literal
meaning (proprie) of the terms, that they cannot inherit the kingdom of
God; but [these words apply] to those carnal deeds already mentioned,
which, perverting man to sin, deprive him of life. And for this reason
he says, in the Epistle to the Romans: “Let not sin, therefore, reign
in your mortal body, to be under its control: neither yield ye your
members instruments of unrighteousness unto sin; but yield yourselves
to God, as being alive from the dead, and your members as instruments
of righteousness unto God.”  In these same members, therefore, in
which we used to serve sin, and bring forth fruit unto death, does He
wish us to [be obedient] unto righteousness, that we may bring forth
fruit unto life. Remember, therefore, my beloved friend, that thou hast
been redeemed by the flesh of our Lord, re-established  by His
blood; and “holding the Head, from which the whole body of the Church,
having been fitted together, takes increase”  --that is, acknowledging the advent in the flesh of the Son of God, and [His]
divinity (deum), and looking forward with constancy to His human nature
 (hominem), availing thyself also of these proofs drawn from
Scripture—thou dost easily overthrow, as I have pointed out, all those
 Gen. iv. 10.
 Gen. ix. 5, 6, LXX.
 One of the mss. reads here: Sanguis pro sanguine ejus effundetur.
 Matt. xxiii. 35, etc.; Luke xi. 50.
 Col. i. 21, etc.
 Eph. i. 7.
 Eph. ii. 13.
 Eph. ii. 15.
 Rom. vi. 12, 13, etc.
 “Et sanguine ejus redhibitus,” corresponding to the Greek term
apokatastatheis. “Redhibere” is properly a forensic term, meaning to cause any article to be restored to the vendor.
 Col. ii. 19.
 Harvey restores the Greek thus, kai ton autou anthropon bebaios
ekdechomenos, which he thinks has a reference to the patient waiting
for “Christ’s second advent to judge the world.” The phrase might also
Chapter XV.—Proofs of the resurrection from Isaiah and Ezekiel; the same God
who created us will also raise us up.
1. Now, that He who at the beginning created man, did promise him a second birth after his dissolution into earth, Esaias thus declares:
“The dead shall rise again, and they who are in the tombs shall arise,
and they who are in the earth shall rejoice. For the dew which is from
Thee is health to them.”  And again: “I will comfort you, and ye
shall be comforted in Jerusalem: and ye shall see, and your heart shall
rejoice, and your bones shall flourish as the grass; and the hand of
the Lord shall be known to those who worship Him.”  And Ezekiel
speaks as follows: “And the hand of the Lord came upon me, and the Lord
led me forth in the Spirit, and set me down in the midst of the plain,
and this place was full of bones. And He caused me to pass by them
round about: and, behold, there were many upon the surface of the plain
very dry. And He said unto me, Son of man, can these bones live? And I
said, Lord, Thou who hast made them dost know. And He said unto me,
Prophesy upon these bones, and thou shalt say to them, Ye dry bones,
hear the word of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord to these bones, Behold,
I will cause the spirit of life to come upon you, and I will lay sinews
upon you, and bring up flesh again upon you, and I will stretch skin
upon you, and will put my Spirit into you, and ye shall live; and ye
shall know that I am the Lord. And I prophesied as the Lord had
commanded me. And it came to pass, when I was prophesying, that,
behold, an earthquake, and the bones were drawn together, each one to
its own articulation: and I beheld, and, lo, the sinews and flesh were
produced upon them, and the skins rose upon them round about, but there
was no breath in them. And He said unto me, Prophesy to the breath, son
of man, and say to the breath, These things saith the Lord, Come from
the four winds (spiritibus), and breathe upon these dead, that they may
live. So I prophesied as the Lord had commanded me, and the breath
entered into them; and they did live, and stood upon their feet, an
exceeding great gathering.”  And again he says, “Thus saith the
Lord, Behold, I will set your graves open, and cause you to come out of
your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel; and ye shall know
that I am the Lord, when I shall open your sepulchres, that I may bring
my people again out of the sepulchres: and I will put my Spirit into
you, and ye shall live; and I will place you in your land, and ye shall
know that I am the Lord. I have said, and I will do, saith the Lord.”
 As we at once perceive that the Creator (Demiurgo) is in this
passage represented as vivifying our dead bodies, and promising
resurrection to them, and resuscitation from their sepulchres and
tombs, conferring upon them immortality also (He says, “For as the tree
of life, so shall their days be”  ), He is shown to be the only
God who accomplishes these things, and as Himself the good Father, benevolently conferring life upon those who have not life from themselves.
2. And for this reason did the Lord most plainly manifest Himself and
the Father to His disciples, lest, forsooth, they might seek after
another God besides Him who formed man, and who gave him the breath of
life; and that men might not rise to such a pitch of madness as to
feign another Father above the Creator. And thus also He healed by a
word all the others who were in a weakly condition because of sin; to
whom also He said, “Behold, thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a
worse thing come upon thee:”  pointing out by this, that, because
of the sin of disobedience, infirmities have come upon men. To that
man, however, who had been blind from his birth, He gave sight, not by
means of a word, but by an outward action; doing this not without a
purpose, or because it so happened, but that He might show forth the
hand of God, that which at the beginning had moulded man. And
therefore, when His disciples asked Him for what cause the man had been
born blind, whether for his own or his parents’ fault, He replied,
“Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, but that the works of
God should be made manifest in him.”  Now the work of God is the
fashioning of man. For, as the Scripture says, He made [man] by a kind
of process: “And the Lord took clay from the earth, and formed man.”
 Wherefore also the Lord spat on the ground and made clay, and
smeared it upon the eyes, pointing out the original fashioning [of
man], how it was effected, and manifesting the hand of God to those who
can understand by what [hand] man was formed out of the dust. For that
which the artificer, the Word, had omitted to form in the womb, [viz.,
the blind man’s eyes], He then supplied in public, that the works of
God might be manifested in him, in order that we might not be seeking
out another hand by which man was fashioned, nor another Father;
knowing that this hand of God which formed us at the beginning, and
which does form us in the womb, has in the last times sought us out who
were lost, winning back His own, and taking up the lost sheep upon His
shoulders, and with joy restoring it to the fold of life.
3. Now, that the Word of God forms us in the womb, He says to Jeremiah,
“Before I formed thee in the womb, I knew thee; and before thou wentest
forth from the belly, I sanctified thee, and appointed thee a prophet
among the nations.”  And Paul, too, says in like manner, “But
when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother’s womb, that I
might declare Him among the nations.”  As, therefore, we are by
the Word formed in the womb, this very same Word formed the visual
power in him who had been blind from his birth; showing openly who it
is that fashions us in secret, since the Word Himself had been made
manifest to men: and declaring the original formation of Adam, and the
manner in which he was created, and by what hand he was fashioned,
indicating the whole from a part. For the Lord who formed the visual
powers is He who made the whole man, carrying out the will of the
Father. And inasmuch as man, with respect to that formation which, was
after Adam, having fallen into transgression, needed the laver of
regeneration, [the Lord] said to him [upon whom He had conferred
sight], after He had smeared his eyes with the clay, “Go to Siloam, and
wash;”  thus restoring to him both [his perfect] confirmation,
and that regeneration which takes place by means of the laver. And for
this reason when he was washed he came seeing, that he might both know
Him who had fashioned him, and that man might learn [to know] Him who
has conferred upon him life.
4. All the followers of Valentinus, therefore, lose their case, when
they say that man was not fashioned out of this earth, but from a fluid
and diffused substance. For, from the earth out of which the Lord
formed eyes for that man, from the same earth it is evident that man
was also fashioned at the beginning. For it were incompatible that the
eyes should indeed be formed from one source and the rest of the body
from another; as neither would it be compatible that one [being]
fashioned the body, and another the eyes. But He, the very same who
formed Adam at the beginning, with whom also the Father spake,
[saying], “Let Us make man after Our image and likeness,” 
revealing Himself in these last times to men, formed visual organs
(visionem) for him who had been blind [in that body which he had
derived] from Adam. Wherefore also the Scripture, pointing out what
should come to pass, says, that when Adam had hid himself because of
his disobedience, the Lord came to him at eventide, called him forth,
and said, “Where art thou?”  That means that in the last times
the very same Word of God came to call man, reminding him of his
doings, living in which he had been hidden from the Lord. For just as
 Isa. xxvi. 19.
 Isa. lxvi. 13.
 Ezek. xxxvii. 1, etc.
 Ezek. xxxvii. 12, etc.
 Isa. lxv. 22.
 John v. 14.
 John ix. 3.
 Gen. ii. 7.
 Jer. i. 5.
 Gal. i. 15.
 John ix. 7.
 Gen. i. 25.
Chapter XVI.—Since our bodies return to the earth, it follows that they have
their substance from it; also, by the advent of the Word, the image of God in
us appeared in a clearer light.
1. And since Adam was moulded from this earth to which we belong, the
Scripture tells us that God said to him, “In the sweat of thy face
shall thou eat thy bread, until thou turnest again to the dust from
whence thou wert taken.”  If then, after death, our bodies return
to any other substance, it follows that from it also they have their
substance. But if it be into this very [earth], it is manifest that it
was also from it that man’s frame was created; as also the Lord clearly
showed, when from this very substance He formed eyes for the man [to
whom He gave sight]. And thus was the hand of God plainly shown forth,
by which Adam was fashioned, and we too have been formed; and since
there is one and the same Father, whose voice from the beginning even
to the end is present with His handiwork, and the substance from which
we were formed is plainly declared through the Gospel, we should
therefore not seek after another Father besides Him, nor [look for]
another substance from which we have been formed, besides what was
mentioned beforehand, and shown forth by the Lord; nor another hand of
God besides that which, from the beginning even to the end, forms us and prepares us for life, and is present with His handiwork, and perfects it after the image and likeness of God.
2. And then, again, this Word was manifested when the Word of God was
made man, assimilating Himself to man, and man to Himself, so that by
means of his resemblance to the Son, man might become precious to the
Father. For in times long past, it was said that man was created after
the image of God, but it was not [actually] shown; for the Word was as
yet invisible, after whose image man was created, Wherefore also he did
easily lose the similitude. When, however, the Word of God became
flesh, He confirmed both these: for He both showed forth the image
truly, since He became Himself what was His image; and He
re-established the similitude after a sure manner, by assimilating man
to the invisible Father through means of the visible Word.
3. And not by the aforesaid things alone has the Lord manifested
Himself, but [He has done this] also by means of His passion. For doing
away with [the effects of] that disobedience of man which had taken
place at the beginning by the occasion of a tree, “He became obedient
unto death, even the death of the cross;”  rectifying that
disobedience which had occurred by reason of a tree, through that
obedience which was [wrought out] upon the tree [of the cross]. Now He
would not have come to do away, by means of that same [image], the
disobedience which had been incurred towards our Maker if He proclaimed
another Father. But inasmuch as it was by these things that we
disobeyed God, and did not give credit to His word, so was it also by
these same that He brought in obedience and consent as respects His
Word; by which things He clearly shows forth God Himself, whom indeed
we had offended in the first Adam, when he did not perform His
commandment. In the second Adam, however, we are reconciled, being made
obedient even unto death. For we were debtors to none other but to Him
 Gen. iii. 19.
Chapter XVII.—There is but one Lord and one God, the Father and Creator of
all things, who has loved us in Christ, given us commandments, and remitted
our sins; whose Son and Word Christ proved Himself to be, when He forgave our
1. Now this being is the Creator (Demiurgus), who is, in respect of His
love, the Father; but in respect of His power, He is Lord; and in
respect of His wisdom, our Maker and Fashioner; by transgressing whose
commandment we became His enemies. And therefore in the last times the
Lord has restored us into friendship through His incarnation, having
become “the Mediator between God and men;”  propitiating indeed
for us the Father against whom we had sinned, and cancelling
(consolatus) our disobedience by His own obedience; conferring also
upon us the gift of communion with, and subjection to, our Maker. For
this reason also He has taught us to say in prayer, “And forgive us our
debts;”  since indeed He is our Father, whose debtors we were,
having transgressed His commandments. But who is this Being? Is He some
unknown one, and a Father who gives no commandment to any one? Or is He
the God who is proclaimed in the Scriptures, to whom we were debtors,
having transgressed His commandment? Now the commandment was given to
man by the Word. For Adam, it is said, “heard the voice of the Lord
God.”  Rightly then does His Word say to man, “Thy sins are
forgiven thee;”  He, the same against whom we had sinned in the
beginning, grants forgiveness of sins in the end. But if indeed we had
disobeyed the command of any other, while it was a different being who
said, “Thy sins are forgiven thee;”  such an one is neither good,
nor true, nor just. For how can he be good, who does not give from what
belongs to himself? Or how can he be just, who snatches away the goods
of another? And in what way can sins be truly remitted, unless that He
against whom we have sinned has Himself granted remission “through the
bowels of mercy of our God,” in which “He has visited us”  through His Son?
2. And therefore, when He had healed the man sick of the palsy, [the evangelist] says, “The people upon seeing it glorified God, who gave such power unto men.”  What God, then, did the bystanders glorify? Was it indeed that unknown Father invented by the heretics?
And how could they glorify him who was altogether unknown to them? It
is evident, therefore, that the Israelites glorified Him who has been
proclaimed as God by the law and the prophets, who is also the Father
of our Lord; and therefore He taught men, by the evidence of their
senses through those signs which He accomplished, to give glory to God.
If, however, He Himself had come from another Father, and men glorified
a different Father when they beheld His miracles, He [in that case]
rendered them ungrateful to that Father who had sent the gift of
healing. But as the only-begotten Son had come for man’s salvation from
Him who is God, He did both stir up the incredulous by the miracles
which He was in the habit of working, to give glory to the Father; and
to the Pharisees, who did not admit the advent of His Son, and who
consequently did not believe in the remission [of sins] which was
conferred by Him, He said, “That ye may know that the Son of man hath
power to forgive sins.”  And when He had said this, He commanded
the paralytic man to take up the pallet upon which he was lying, and go
into his house. By this work of His He confounded the unbelievers, and
showed that He is Himself the voice of God, by which man received commandments, which he broke, and became a sinner; for the paralysis followed as a consequence of sins.
3. Therefore, by remitting sins, He did indeed heal man, while He also
manifested Himself who He was. For if no one can forgive sins but God
alone, while the Lord remitted them and healed men, it is plain that He
was Himself the Word of God made the Son of man, receiving from the
Father the power of remission of sins; since He was man, and since He
was God, in order that since as man He suffered for us, so as God He
might have compassion on us, and forgive us our debts, in which we were
made debtors to God our Creator. And therefore David said beforehand,
“Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are
covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord has not imputed sin;”
 pointing out thus that remission of sins which follows upon His
advent, by which “He has destroyed the handwriting” of our debt, and “fastened it to the cross;”  so that as by means of a tree we were made debtors to God, [so also] by means of a tree we may obtain the remission of our debt.
4. This fact has been strikingly set forth by many others, and especially through means of Elisha the prophet. For when his
fellow-prophets were hewing wood for the construction of a tabernacle,
and when the iron [head], shaken loose from the axe, had fallen into
the Jordan and could not be found by them, upon Elisha’s coming to the
place, and learning what had happened, he threw some wood into the
water. Then, when he had done this, the iron part of the axe floated
up, and they took up from the surface of the water what they had
previously lost.  By this action the prophet pointed out that the
sure word of God, which we had negligently lost by means of a tree, and
were not in the way of finding again, we should receive anew by the
dispensation of a tree, [viz., the cross of Christ]. For that the word
of God is likened to an axe, John the Baptist declares [when he says]
in reference to it, “But now also is the axe laid to the root of the
trees.”  Jeremiah also says to the same purport: “The word of God
cleaveth the rock as an axe.”  This word, then, what was hidden
from us, did the dispensation of the tree make manifest, as I have
already remarked. For as we lost it by means of a tree, by means of a
tree again was it made manifest to all, showing the height, the length,
the breadth, the depth in itself; and, as a certain man among our
predecessors observed, “Through the extension of the hands of a divine
person,  gathering together the two peoples to one God.” For
these were two hands, because there were two peoples scattered to the
 1 Tim. ii. 5.
 Matt. vi. 12.
 Gen. iii. 8.
 Matt. ix. 2; Luke v. 20.
 Matt. ix. 2; Luke v. 20.
 Luke i. 78.
 Matt. ix. 8.
 Matt. ix. 6.
 Ps. xxxii. 1, 2.
 Col. ii. 14.
 2 Kings vi. 6.
 Matt. iii. 10.
 Jer. xxiii. 29.
 The Greek is preserved here, and reads, dia tes theias ektaseos
ton cheiron—literally, “through the divine extension of hands.” The
Chapter XVIII.—God the Father and His Word have formed all created things
(which They use) by Their own power and wisdom, not out of defect or
ignorance. The Son of God, who received all power from the Father, would
otherwise never have taken flesh upon Him.
1. And such or so important a dispensation He did not bring about by means of the creations of others, but by His own; neither by those things which were created out of ignorance and defect, but by those
which had their substance from the wisdom and power of His Father. For
He was neither unrighteous, so that He should covet the property of
another; nor needy, that He could not by His own means impart life to
His own, and make use of His own creation for the salvation of man. For
indeed the creation could not have sustained Him [on the cross], if He
had sent forth [simply by commission] what was the fruit of ignorance
and defect. Now we have repeatedly shown that the incarnate Word of God
was suspended upon a tree, and even the very heretics do acknowledge
that He was crucified. How, then, could the fruit of ignorance and
defect sustain Him who contains the knowledge of all things, and is
true and perfect? Or how could that creation which was concealed from
the Father, and far removed from Him, have sustained His Word? And if
this world were made by the angels (it matters not whether we suppose
their ignorance or their cognizance of the Supreme God), when the Lord
declared, “For I am in the Father, and the Father in Me,”  how
could this workmanship of the angels have borne to be burdened at once
with the Father and the Son? How, again, could that creation which is
beyond the Pleroma have contained Him who contains the entire Pleroma?Inasmuch, then, as all these things are impossible and incapable of proof, that preaching of the Church is alone true [which proclaims]
that His own creation bare Him, which subsists by the power, the skill,
and the wisdom of God; which is sustained, indeed, after an invisible
manner by the Father, but, on the contrary, after a visible manner it
bore His Word: and this is the true [Word].
2. For the Father bears the creation and His own Word simultaneously,
and the Word borne by the Father grants the Spirit to all as the Father
wills.  To some He gives after the manner of creation what is
made;  but to others [He gives] after the manner of adoption,
that is, what is from God, namely generation. And thus one God the
Father is declared, who is above all, and through all, and in all. The
Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ; but the Word
is through all things, and is Himself the Head of the Church; while the
Spirit is in us all, and He is the living water,  which the Lord
grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know
that “there is one Father, who is above all, and through all, and in us
all.”  And to these things does John also, the disciple of the
Lord, bear witness, when he speaks thus in the Gospel: “In the
beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was
God. This was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him,
and without Him was nothing made.”  And then he said of the Word
Himself: “He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, and the
world knew Him not. To His own things He came, and His own people
received Him not. However, as many as did receive Him, to these gave He
power to become the sons of God, to those that believe in His name.”
 And again, showing the dispensation with regard to His human
nature, John said: “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.”
 And in continuation he says, “And we beheld His glory, the glory
as of the Only-begotten by the Father, full of grace and truth.” He
thus plainly points out to those willing to hear, that is, to those
having ears, that there is one God, the Father over all, and one Word
of God, who is through all, by whom all things have been made; and that
this world belongs to Him, and was made by Him, according to the
Father’s will, and not by angels; nor by apostasy, defect, and
ignorance; nor by any power of Prunicus, whom certain of them also call
“the Mother;” nor by any other maker of the world ignorant of the Father.
3. For the Creator of the world is truly the Word of God: and this is
our Lord, who in the last times was made man, existing in this world,
and who in an invisible manner contains all things created, and is
inherent in the entire creation, since the Word of God governs and
arranges all things; and therefore He came to His own in a visible
 manner, and was made flesh, and hung upon the tree, that He
might sum up all things in Himself. “And His own peculiar people did
not receive Him,” as Moses declared this very thing among the people:
“And thy life shall be hanging before thine eyes, and thou wilt not
believe thy life.”  Those therefore who did not receive Him did
not receive life. “But to as many as received Him, to them gave He
power to become the sons of God.”  For it is He who has power
from the Father over all things, since He is the Word of God, and very
man, communicating with invisible beings after the manner of the
intellect, and appointing a law observable to the outward senses, that
all things should continue each in its own order; and He reigns
manifestly over things visible and pertaining to men; and brings in
just judgment and worthy upon all; as David also, clearly pointing to
this, says, “Our God shall openly come, and will not keep silence.”
 Then he shows also the judgment which is brought in by Him,
saying, “A fire shall burn in His sight, and a strong tempest shall
rage round about Him. He shall call upon the heaven from above, and the
 John xiv. 11.
 From this passage Harvey infers that Irenaeus held the
procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son,--a doctrine
denied by the Oriental Church in after times. [Here is nothing about
the “procession:” only the “mission” of the Spirit is here concerned.
And the Easterns object to the double procession itself only in so far
as any one means thereby to deny “quod solus Pater est divinarum personarum, Principium et Fons,”—riza kai pege. See Procopowicz, De Processione, Gothae, 1772].
 Grabe and Harvey insert the words, “quod est conditionis,” but
on slender authority.
 John vii. 39.
 Eph. iv. 6.
 John i. 1, etc.
 John i. 10, etc.
 John i. 14.
 The text reads “invisiblilter,” which seems clearly an error.
 Deut. xxviii. 66.
 John i. 12.
Chapter XIX.—A comparison is instituted between the disobedient and sinning
Eve and the Virgin Mary, her patroness. Various and discordant heresies are
1. That the Lord then was manifestly coming to His own things, and was
sustaining them by means of that creation which is supported by
Himself, and was making a recapitulation of that disobedience which had
occurred in connection with a tree, through the obedience which was
[exhibited by Himself when He hung] upon a tree, [the effects] also of
that deception being done away with, by which that virgin Eve, who was
already espoused to a man, was unhappily misled,--was happily
announced, through means of the truth [spoken] by the angel to the
Virgin Mary, who was [also espoused] to a man.  For just as the
former was led astray by the word of an angel, so that she fled from
God when she had transgressed His word; so did the latter, by an
angelic communication, receive the glad tidings that she should sustain
(portaret) God, being obedient to His word. And if the former did
disobey God, yet the latter was persuaded to be obedient to God, in
order that the Virgin Mary might become the patroness  (advocata)of the virgin Eve. And thus, as the human race fell into bondage to death by means of a virgin, so is it rescued by a virgin; virginal disobedience having been balanced in the opposite scale by virginal obedience. For in the same way the sin of the first created man (protoplasti) receives amendment by the correction of the First-begotten, and the coming of the serpent is conquered by the harmlessness of the dove, those bonds being unloosed by which we had been fast bound to death.
2. The heretics being all unlearned and ignorant of God’s arrangements,
and not acquainted with that dispensation by which He took upon Him
human nature (inscii ejus quae est secundum hominem dispensationis),
inasmuch as they blind themselves with regard to the truth, do in fact
speak against their own salvation. Some of them introduce another
Father besides the Creator; some, again, say that the world and its
substance was made by certain angels; certain others [maintain] that it
was widely separated by Horos  from him whom they represent as
being the Father—that it sprang forth (floruisse) of itself, and from
itself was born. Then, again, others [of them assert] that it obtained
substance in those things which are contained by the Father, from
defect and ignorance; others still, despise the advent of the Lord
manifest [to the senses], for they do not admit His incarnation; while
others, ignoring the arrangement [that He should be born] of a virgin,
maintain that He was begotten by Joseph. And still further, some affirm
that neither their soul nor their body can receive eternal life, but
merely the inner man. Moreover, they will have it that this [inner man]
is that which is the understanding (sensum) in them, and which they
decree as being the only thing to ascend to “the perfect.” Others
[maintain], as I have said in the first book, that while the soul is
saved, their body does not participate in the salvation which comes
from God; in which [book] I have also set forward the hypotheses of all
 The text is here most uncertain and obscure.
 [This word patroness is ambiguous. The Latin may stand for Gr.
antilepsis, --a person called in to help, or to take hold of the other
end of a burden. The argument implies that Mary was thus the counterpart or balance of Eve.]
Chapter XX.—Those pastors are to be heard to whom the apostles committed the
Churches, possessing one and the same doctrine of salvation; the heretics, on
the other hand, are to be avoided. We must think soberly with regard to the
mysteries of the faith.
1. Now all these [heretics] are of much later date than the bishops to
whom the apostles committed the Churches; which fact I have in the
third book taken all pains to demonstrate. It follows, then, as a
matter of course, that these heretics aforementioned, since they are
blind to the truth, and deviate from the [right] way, will walk in
various roads; and therefore the footsteps of their doctrine are
scattered here and there without agreement or connection. But the path
of those belonging to the Church circumscribes the whole world, as
possessing the sure tradition from the apostles, and gives unto us to
see that the faith of all is one and the same, since all receive one
and the same God the Father, and believe in the same dispensation
regarding the incarnation of the Son of God, and are cognizant of the
same gift of the Spirit, and are conversant with the same commandments,
and preserve the same form of ecclesiastical constitution,  and
expect the same advent of the Lord, and await the same salvation of the
complete man, that is, of the soul and body. And undoubtedly the
preaching of the Church is true and stedfast,  in which one and
the same way of salvation is shown throughout the whole world. For to
her is entrusted the light of God; and therefore the “wisdom” of God,
by means of which she saves all men, “is declared in [its] going forth;
it uttereth [its voice] faithfully in the streets, is preached on the
tops of the walls, and speaks continually in the gates of the city.”  For the Church preaches the truth everywhere, and she is the seven-branched candlestick which bears the light of Christ.
2. Those, therefore, who desert the preaching of the Church, call in question the knowledge of the holy presbyters, not taking into
consideration of how much greater consequence is a religious man, even
in a private station, than a blasphemous and impudent sophist. 
Now, such are all the heretics, and those who imagine that they have
hit upon something more beyond the truth, so that by following those
things already mentioned, proceeding on their way variously,
inharmoniously, and foolishly, not keeping always to the same opinions
with regard to the same things, as blind men are led by the blind, they
shall deservedly fall into the ditch of ignorance lying in their path,
ever seeking and never finding out the truth.  It behoves us,
therefore, to avoid their doctrines, and to take careful heed lest we
suffer any injury from them; but to flee to the Church, and be brought
up in her bosom, and be nourished with the Lord’s Scriptures. For the
Church has been planted as a garden (paradisus) in this world;
therefore says the Spirit of God, “Thou mayest freely eat from every
tree of the garden,”  that is, Eat ye from every Scripture of the
Lord; but ye shall not eat with an uplifted mind, nor touch any
heretical discord. For these men do profess that they have themselves
the knowledge of good and evil; and they set their own impious minds
above the God who made them. They therefore form opinions on what is
beyond the limits of the understanding. For this cause also the apostle
says, “Be not wise beyond what it is fitting to be wise, but be wise
prudently,”  that we be not cast forth by eating of the
“knowledge” of these men (that knowledge which knows more than it
should do) from the paradise of life. Into this paradise the Lord has
introduced those who obey His call, “summing up in Himself all things
which are in heaven, and which are on earth;”  but the things in
heaven are spiritual, while those on earth constitute the dispensation
in human nature (secundum hominem est dispositio). These things,
therefore, He recapitulated in Himself: by uniting man to the Spirit,
and causing the Spirit to dwell in man, He is Himself made the head of
the Spirit, and gives the Spirit to be the head of man: for through Him
 “Et eandem figuram ejus quae est erga ecclesiam ordinationis
custodientibus.” Grabe supposes this refers to the ordained ministry of
the Church, but Harvey thinks it refers more probably to its general constitution.
 [He thus outlines the creed, and epitomizes “the faith once delivered to the saints,” as all that is requisite to salvation.]
 Prov. i. 20, 21.
 That is, the private Christian as contrasted with the sophist of
 2 Tim. iii. 7.
 Gen. ii. 16.
 Rom. xii. 3.
Chapter XXI.—Christ is the head of all things already mentioned. It was
fitting that He should be sent by the Father, the Creator of all things, to
assume human nature, and should be tempted by Satan, that He might fulfil the
promises, and carry off a glorious and perfect victory.
1. He has therefore, in His work of recapitulation, summed up all
things, both waging war against our enemy, and crushing him who had at
the beginning led us away captives in Adam, and trampled upon his head,
as thou canst perceive in Genesis that God said to the serpent, “And I
will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and
her seed; He shall be on the watch for (observabit  ) thy head,
and thou on the watch for His heel.”  For from that time, He who
should be born of a woman, [namely] from the Virgin, after the likeness
of Adam, was preached as keeping watch for the head of the serpent.
This is the seed of which the apostle says in the Epistle to the
Galatians, “that the law of works was established until the seed should
come to whom the promise was made.”  This fact is exhibited in a
still clearer light in the same Epistle, where he thus speaks: “But
when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth His Son, made of a
woman.”  For indeed the enemy would not have been fairly
vanquished, unless it had been a man [born] of a woman who conquered
him. For it was by means of a woman that he got the advantage over man
at first, setting himself up as man’s opponent. And therefore does the
Lord profess Himself to be the Son of man, comprising in Himself that
original man out of whom the woman was fashioned (ex quo ea quae
secundum mulierem est plasmatio facta est), in order that, as our
species went down to death through a vanquished man, so we may ascend
to life again through a victorious one; and as through a man death received the palm [of victory] against us, so again by a man we may receive the palm against death.
2. Now the Lord would not have recapitulated in Himself that ancient
and primary enmity against the serpent, fulfilling the promise of the
Creator (Demiurgi), and performing His command, if He had come from
another Father. But as He is one and the same, who formed us at the
beginning, and sent His Son at the end, the Lord did perform His
command, being made of a woman, by both destroying our adversary, and
perfecting man after the image and likeness of God. And for this reason
He did not draw the means of confounding him from any other source than
from the words of the law, and made use of the Father’s commandment as
a help towards the destruction and confusion of the apostate angel.
Fasting forty days, like Moses and Elias, He afterwards hungered,
first, in order that we may perceive that He was a real and substantial
man—for it belongs to a man to suffer hunger when fasting; and
secondly, that His opponent might have an opportunity of attacking Him.
For as at the beginning it was by means of food that [the enemy]
persuaded man, although not suffering hunger, to transgress God’s
commandments, so in the end he did not succeed in persuading Him that
was an hungered to take that food which proceeded from God. For, when
tempting Him, he said, “If thou be the Son of God, command that these
stones be made bread.”  But the Lord repulsed him by the
commandment of the law, saying, “It is written, Man doth not live by
bread alone.”  As to those words [of His enemy,] “If thou be the
Son of God,” [the Lord] made no remark; but by thus acknowledging His
human nature He baffled His adversary, and exhausted the force of his
first attack by means of His Father’s word. The corruption of man, therefore, which occurred in paradise by both [of our first parents] eating, was done away with by [the Lord’s] want of food in this world.
 But he, being thus vanquished by the law, endeavoured again to
make an assault by himself quoting a commandment of the law. For,
bringing Him to the highest pinnacle of the temple, he said to Him, “If
thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down. For it is written, That God
shall give His angels charge concerning thee, and in their hands they
shall bear thee up, lest perchance thou dash thy foot against a stone;”
 thus concealing a falsehood under the guise of Scripture, as is
done by all the heretics. For that was indeed written, [namely], “That
He hath given His angels charge concerning Him;” but “cast thyself down
from hence” no Scripture said in reference to Him: this kind of
persuasion the devil produced from himself. The Lord therefore confuted
him out of the law, when He said, “It is written again, Thou shalt not
tempt the Lord thy God;”  pointing out by the word contained in
the law that which is the duty of man, that he should not tempt God;
and in regard to Himself, since He appeared in human form, [declaring]
that He would not tempt the Lord his God.  The pride of reason,
therefore, which was in the serpent, was put to nought by the humility
found in the man [Christ], and now twice was the devil conquered from
Scripture, when he was detected as advising things contrary to God’s
commandment, and was shown to be the enemy of God by [the expression
of] his thoughts. He then, having been thus signally defeated, and
then, as it were, concentrating his forces, drawing up in order all his
available power for falsehood, in the third place “showed Him all the
kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them,”  saying, as Luke
relates, “All these will I give thee,--for they are delivered to me;
and to whom I will, I give them,--if thou wilt fall down and worship
me.” The Lord then, exposing him in his true character, says, “Depart,
Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him
only shalt thou serve.”  He both revealed him by this name, and
showed [at the same time] who He Himself was. For the Hebrew word
“Satan” signifies an apostate. And thus, vanquishing him for the third
time, He spurned him from Him finally as being conquered out of the
law; and there was done away with that infringement of God’s
commandment which had occurred in Adam, by means of the precept of the
law, which the Son of man observed, who did not transgress the commandment of God.
3. Who, then, is this Lord God to whom Christ bears witness, whom no
man shall tempt, whom all should worship, and serve Him alone? It is,
beyond all manner of doubt, that God who also gave the law. For these
things had been predicted in the law, and by the words (sententiam) of
the law the Lord showed that the law does indeed declare the Word of
God from the Father; and the apostate angel of God is destroyed by its
voice, being exposed in his true colours, and vanquished by the Son of
man keeping the commandment of God. For as in the beginning he enticed
man to transgress his Maker’s law, and thereby got him into his power;
yet his power consists in transgression and apostasy, and with these he
bound man [to himself]; so again, on the other hand, it was necessary
that through man himself he should, when conquered, be bound with the
same chains with which he had bound man, in order that man, being set
free, might return to his Lord, leaving to him (Satan) those bonds by
which he himself had been fettered, that is, sin. For when Satan is
bound, man is set free; since “none can enter a strong man’s house and
spoil his goods, unless he first bind the strong man himself.” 
The Lord therefore exposes him as speaking contrary to the word of that
God who made all things, and subdues him by means of the commandment.
Now the law is the commandment of God. The Man proves him to be a
fugitive from and a transgressor of the law, an apostate also from God.
After [the Man had done this], the Word bound him securely as a
fugitive from Himself, and made spoil of his goods,-- namely, those men
whom he held in bondage, and whom he unjustly used for his own
purposes. And justly indeed is he led captive, who had led men unjustly
into bondage; while man, who had been led captive in times past, was
rescued from the grasp of his possessor, according to the tender mercy
of God the Father, who had compassion on His own handiwork, and gave to
it salvation, restoring it by means of the Word—that is, by Christ—in
 teresei and teresei have probably been confounded.
 Gen. iii. 15.
 Gal. iii. 19.
 Gal. iv. 4.
 Matt. iv. 3.
 Deut. viii. 3.
 The Latin of this obscure sentence is: Quae ergo fuit in
Paradiso repletio hominis per duplicem gustationem, dissoluta est per
eam, quae fuit in hoc mundo, indigentiam. Harvey thinks that repletio
is an error of the translation reading anaplerosis for anaperosis. This
conjecture is adopted above.
 Ps. lxxxix. 11.
 Deut. vi. 16.
 This sentence is one of great obscurity.
 Luke iv. 6, 7.
 Matt. iv. 10.
Chapter XXII.—The true Lord and the one God is declared by the law, and
manifested by Christ His Son in the Gospel; whom alone we should adore, and
from Him we must look for all good things, not from Satan.
1. Thus then does the Lord plainly show that it was the true Lord and
the one God who had been set forth by the law; for Him whom the law
proclaimed as God, the same did Christ point out as the Father, whom
also it behoves the disciples of Christ alone to serve. By means of the
statements of the law, He put our adversary to utter confusion; and the
law directs us to praise God the Creator (Demiurgum), and to serve Him
alone. Since this is the case, we must not seek for another Father
besides Him, or above Him, since there is one God who justifies the
circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through faith.  For
if there were any other perfect Father above Him, He (Christ) would by
no means have overthrown Satan by means of His words and commandments.
For one ignorance cannot be done away with by means of another
ignorance, any more than one defect by another defect. If, therefore,
the law is due to ignorance and defect, how could the statements
contained therein bring to nought the ignorance of the devil, and
conquer the strong man? For a strong man can be conquered neither by an
inferior nor by an equal, but by one possessed of greater power. But
the Word of God is the superior above all, He who is loudly proclaimed
in the law: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one God;” and, “Thou
shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart;” and, “Him shall thou
adore, and Him alone shall thou serve.”  Then in the Gospel,
casting down the apostasy by means of these expressions, He did both
overcome the strong man by His Father’s voice, and He acknowledges the
commandment of the law to express His own sentiments, when He says,
“Thou shall not tempt the Lord thy God.”  For He did not confound
the adversary by the saying of any other, but by that belonging to His
own Father, and thus overcame the strong man.
2. He taught by His commandment that we who have been set free should,
when hungry, take that food which is given by God; and that, when
placed in the exalted position of every grace [that can be received],
we should not, either by trusting to works of righteousness, or when
adorned with super-eminent [gifts of] ministration, by any means be
lifted up with pride, nor should we tempt God, but should feel humility
in all things, and have ready to hand [this saying], “Thou shall not
tempt the Lord thy God.”  As also the apostle taught, saying,
“Minding not high things, but consenting to things of low estate;”
 that we should neither be ensnared with riches, nor mundane
glory, nor present fancy, but should know that we must “worship the
Lord thy God, and serve Him alone,” and give no heed to him who falsely
promised things not his own, when he said, “All these will I give thee,
if, falling down, thou wilt worship me.” For he himself confesses that
to adore him, and to do his will, is to fall from the glory of God. And
in what thing either pleasant or good can that man who has fallen
participate? Or what else can such a person hope for or expect, except
death? For death is next neighbour to him who has fallen. Hence also it
follows that he will not give what he has promised. For how can he make
grants to him who has fallen? Moreover, since God rules over men and
him too, and without the will of our Father in heaven not even a
sparrow falls to the ground,  it follows that his declaration,
“All these things are delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will I
give them,” proceeds from him when puffed up with pride. For the
creation is not subjected to his power, since indeed he is himself but
one among created things. Nor shall he give away the rule over men to
men; but both all other things, and all human affairs, are arranged
according to God the Father’s disposal. Besides, the Lord declares that
“the devil is a liar from the beginning, and the truth is not in him.”
 If then he be a liar and the truth be not in him, he certainly
did not speak truth, but a lie, when he said, “For all these things are
 Rom. iii. 30.
 Deut. vi. 4, 5, 13.
 Matt. iv. 7.
 Deut. vi. 16.
 Rom. xii. 16.
 Matt. x. 29.
 John viii. 44.
Chapter XXIII.—The devil is well practised in falsehood, by which Adam having
been led astray, sinned on the sixth day of the creation, in which day also he
has been renewed by Christ.
1. He had indeed been already accustomed to lie against God, for the
purpose of leading men astray. For at the beginning, when God had given
to man a variety of things for food, while He commanded him not to eat
of one tree only, as the Scripture tells us that God said to Adam:
“From every tree which is in the garden thou shalt eat food; but from
the tree of knowledge of good and evil, from this ye shall not eat: for
in the day that ye shall eat of it, ye shall die by death;”  he
then, lying against the Lord, tempted man, as the Scripture says that
the serpent said to the woman: “Has God indeed said this, Ye shall not
eat from every tree of the garden?”  And when she had exposed the
falsehood, and simply related the command, as He had said, “From every
tree of the garden we shall eat; but of the fruit of the tree which is
in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die:”  when he had [thus]
learned from the woman the command of God, having brought his cunning
into play, he finally deceived her by a falsehood, saying, “Ye shall
not die by death; for God knew that in the day ye shall eat of it your
eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.”
 In the first place, then, in the garden of God he disputed about
God, as if God was not there, for he was ignorant of the greatness of
God; and then, in the next place, after he had learned from the woman
that God had said that they should die if they tasted the aforesaid
tree, opening his mouth, he uttered the third falsehood, “Ye shall not
die by death.” But that God was true, and the serpent a liar, was
proved by the result, death having passed upon them who had eaten. For
along with the fruit they did also fall under the power of death,
because they did eat in disobedience; and disobedience to God entails
death. Wherefore, as they became forfeit to death, from that [moment]
they were handed over to it.
2. Thus, then, in the day that they did eat, in the same did they die,
and became death’s debtors, since it was one day of the creation. For
it is said, “There was made in the evening, and there was made in the
morning, one day.” Now in this same day that they did eat, in that also
did they die. But according to the cycle and progress of the days,
after which one is termed first, another second, and another third, if
anybody seeks diligently to learn upon what day out of the seven it was
that Adam died, he will find it by examining the dispensation of the
Lord. For by summing up in Himself the whole human race from the
beginning to the end, He has also summed up its death. From this it is
clear that the Lord suffered death, in obedience to His Father, upon
that day on which Adam died while he disobeyed God. Now he died on the
same day in which he did eat. For God said, “In that day on which ye
shall eat of it, ye shall die by death.” The Lord, therefore,
recapitulating in Himself this day, underwent His sufferings upon the
day preceding the Sabbath, that is, the sixth day of the creation, on
which day man was created; thus granting him a second creation by means
of His passion, which is that [creation] out of death. And there are
some, again, who relegate the death of Adam to the thousandth year; for
since “a day of the Lord is as a thousand years,”  he did not
overstep the thousand years, but died within them, thus bearing out the
sentence of his sin. Whether, therefore, with respect to disobedience,
which is death; whether [we consider] that, on account of that, they
were delivered over to death, and made debtors to it; whether with
respect to [the fact that on] one and the same day on which they ate
they also died (for it is one day of the creation); whether [we regard
this point], that, with respect to this cycle of days, they died on the
day in which they did also eat, that is, the day of the preparation,
which is termed “the pure supper,” that is, the sixth day of the feast,
which the Lord also exhibited when He suffered on that day; or whether
[we reflect] that he (Adam) did not overstep the thousand years, but
died within their limit,--it follows that, in regard to all these
significations, God is indeed true. For they died who tasted of the
tree; and the serpent is proved a liar and a murderer, as the Lord said
of him: “For he is a murderer from the beginning, and the truth is not
 Gen. ii. 16, 17.
 Gen. iii. 1.
 Gen. iii. 2, 3.
 Gen. iii. 4.
 2 Pet. iii. 8.
Chapter XXIV.—Of the constant falsehood of the devil, and of the powers and
governments of the world, which we ought to obey, inasmuch as they are
appointed of God, not of the devil.
1. As therefore the devil lied at the beginning, so did he also in the
end, when he said, “All these are delivered unto me, and to whomsoever
I will I give them.”  For it is not he who has appointed the
kingdoms of this world, but God; for “the heart of the king is in the
hand of God.”  And the Word also says by Solomon, “By me kings do
reign, and princes administer justice. By me chiefs are raised up, and
by me kings rule the earth.”  Paul the apostle also says upon
this same subject: “Be ye subject to all the higher powers; for there
is no power but of God: now those which are have been ordained of God.”
 And again, in reference to them he says, “For he beareth not the
sword in vain; for he is the minister of God, the avenger for wrath to
him who does evil.”  Now, that he spake these words, not in
regard to angelical powers, nor of invisible rulers—as some venture
to expound the passage—but of those of actual human authorities, [he
shows when] he says, “For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are
God’s ministers, doing service for this very thing.”  This also
the Lord confirmed, when He did not do what He was tempted to by the devil; but He gave directions that tribute should be paid to the tax-gatherers for Himself and Peter;  because “they are the ministers of God, serving for this very thing.”
2. For since man, by departing from God, reached such a pitch of fury
as even to look upon his brother as his enemy, and engaged without fear
in every kind of restless conduct, and murder, and avarice; God imposed
upon mankind the fear of man, as they did not acknowledge the fear of
God, in order that, being subjected to the authority of men, and kept
under restraint by their laws, they might attain to some degree of
justice, and exercise mutual forbearance through dread of the sword
suspended full in their view, as the apostle says: “For he beareth not
the sword in vain; for he is the minister of God, the avenger for wrath
upon him who does evil.” And for this reason too, magistrates
themselves, having laws as a clothing of righteousness whenever they
act in a just and legitimate manner, shall not be called in question
for their conduct, nor be liable to punishment. But whatsoever they do
to the subversion of justice, iniquitously, and impiously, and illegally, and tyrannically, in these things shall they also perish;
for the just judgment of God comes equally upon all, and in no case is
defective. Earthly rule, therefore, has been appointed by God for the
benefit of nations,  and not by the devil, who is never at rest
at all, nay, who does not love to see even nations conducting
themselves after a quiet manner, so that under the fear of human rule,
men may not eat each other up like fishes; but that, by means of the
establishment of laws, they may keep down an excess of wickedness among
the nations. And considered from this point of view, those who exact
tribute from us are “God’s ministers, serving for this very purpose.”
3. As, then, “the powers that be are ordained of God,” it is clear that
the devil lied when he said, “These are delivered unto me; and to
whomsoever I will, I give them.” For by the law of the same Being as
calls men into existence are kings also appointed, adapted for those
men who are at the time placed under their government. Some of these
[rulers] are given for the correction and the benefit of their
subjects, and for the preservation of justice; but others, for the
purposes of fear and punishment and rebuke: others, as [the subjects]
deserve it, are for deception, disgrace, and pride; while the just
judgment of God, as I have observed already, passes equally upon all.
The devil, however, as he is the apostate angel, can only go to this
length, as he did at the beginning, [namely] to deceive and lead astray
the mind of man into disobeying the commandments of God, and gradually
to darken the hearts of those who would endeavour to serve him, to the
forgetting of the true God, but to the adoration of himself as God.
4. Just as if any one, being an apostate, and seizing in a hostile
manner another man’s territory, should harass the inhabitants of it, in
order that he might claim for himself the glory of a king among those
ignorant of his apostasy and robbery; so likewise also the devil, being
one among those angels who are placed over the spirit of the air, as
the Apostle Paul has declared in his Epistle to the Ephesians, 
becoming envious of man, was rendered an apostate from the divine law:
for envy is a thing foreign to God. And as his apostasy was exposed by
man, and man became the [means of] searching out his thoughts (et
examinatio sententiae ejus, homo factus est), he has set himself to
this with greater and greater determination, in opposition to man,
envying his life, and wishing to involve him in his own apostate power.
The Word of God, however, the Maker of all things, conquering him by
means of human nature, and showing him to be an apostate, has, on the
contrary, put him under the power of man. For He says, “Behold, I
confer upon you the power of treading upon serpents and scorpions, and
upon all the power of the enemy,”  in order that, as he obtained
dominion over man by apostasy, so again his apostasy might be deprived
 Matt. iv. 9; Luke iv. 6.
 Prov. xxi. 1.
 Prov. viii. 15.
 Rom. xiii. 1.
 Rom. xiii. 4.
 Rom. xiii. 6.
 Matt. xvii. 27.
 [Well says Benjamin Franklin: “He who shall introduce into
public affairs the principles of primitive Christianity will change the
face of the world.” See Bancroft, Hist. U.S., vol. ix. p. 492.]
 Eph. ii. 2.
Chapter XXV.—The fraud, pride, and tyrannical kingdom of Antichrist, as
described by Daniel and Paul.
1. And not only by the particulars already mentioned, but also by means
of the events which shall occur in the time of Antichrist is it shown
that he, being an apostate and a robber, is anxious to be adored as
God; and that, although a mere slave, he wishes himself to be
proclaimed as a king. For he (Antichrist) being endued with all the
power of the devil, shall come, not as a righteous king, nor as a
legitimate king, [i.e., one] in subjection to God, but an impious,
unjust, and lawless one; as an apostate, iniquitous and murderous; as a
robber, concentrating in himself [all] satanic apostasy, and setting
aside idols to persuade [men] that he himself is God, raising up
himself as the only idol, having in himself the multifarious errors of
the other idols. This he does, in order that they who do [now] worship
the devil by means of many abominations, may serve himself by this one
idol, of whom the apostle thus speaks in the second Epistle to the
Thessalonians: “Unless there shall come a failing away first, and the
man of sin shall be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and
exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped;
so that he sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself as if he were
God.” The apostle therefore clearly points out his apostasy, and that
he is lifted up above all that is called God, or that is
worshipped—that is, above every idol—for these are indeed so called
by men, but are not [really] gods; and that he will endeavour in a tyrannical manner to set himself forth as God.
2. Moreover, he (the apostle) has also pointed out this which I have shown in many ways, that the temple in Jerusalem was made by the
direction of the true God. For the apostle himself, speaking in his own
person, distinctly called it the temple of God. Now I have shown in the
third book, that no one is termed God by the apostles when speaking for
themselves, except Him who truly is God, the Father of our Lord, by
whose directions the temple which is at Jerusalem was constructed for
those purposes which I have already mentioned; in which [temple] the
enemy shall sit, endeavouring to show himself as Christ, as the Lord
also declares: “But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation,
which has been spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy
place (let him that readeth understand), then let those who are in
Judea flee into the mountains; and he who is upon the house-top, let
him not come down to take anything out of his house: for there shall
then be great hardship, such as has not been from the beginning of the
world until now, nor ever shall be.” 
3. Daniel too, looking forward to the end of the last kingdom, i.e., the ten last kings, amongst whom the kingdom of those men shall be partitioned, and upon whom the son of perdition shall come, declares that ten horns shall spring from the beast, and that another little horn shall arise in the midst of them, and that three of the former
shall be rooted up before his face. He says: “And, behold, eyes were in
this horn as the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things, and
his look was more stout than his fellows. I was looking, and this horn
made war against the saints, and prevailed against them, until the
Ancient of days came and gave judgment to the saints of the most high
God, and the time came, and the saints obtained the kingdom.” 
Then, further on, in the interpretation of the vision, there was said
to him: “The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which
shall excel all other kingdoms, and devour the whole earth, and tread
it down, and cut it in pieces. And its ten horns are ten kings which
shall arise; and after them shall arise another, who shall surpass in
evil deeds all that were before him, and shall overthrow three kings;
and he shall speak words against the most high God, and wear out the
saints of the most high God, and shall purpose to change times and
laws; and [everything] shall be given into his hand until a time of
times and a half time,”  that is, for three years and six months,
during which time, when he comes, he shall reign over the earth. Of
whom also the Apostle Paul again, speaking in the second [Epistle] to
the Thessalonians, and at the same time proclaiming the cause of his
advent, thus says: “And then shall the wicked one be revealed, whom the
Lord Jesus shall slay with the spirit of His mouth, and destroy by the
presence of His coming; whose coming [i.e., the wicked one’s] is after
the working of Satan, in all power, and signs, and portents of lies,
and with all deceivableness of wickedness for those who perish; because
they did not receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved.And therefore God will send them the working of error, that they may believe a lie; that they all may be judged who did not believe the truth, but gave consent to iniquity,” 
4. The Lord also spoke as follows to those who did not believe in Him:
“I have come in my Father’s name, and ye have not received Me: when another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive,”  calling Antichrist “the other,” because he is alienated from the Lord.
This is also the unjust judge, whom the Lord mentioned as one “who
feared not God, neither regarded man,”  to whom the widow fled in
her forgetfulness of God,--that is, the earthly Jerusalem,--to be
avenged of her adversary. Which also he shall do in the time of his
kingdom: he shall remove his kingdom into that [city], and shall sit in
the temple of God, leading astray those who worship him, as if he were
Christ. To this purpose Daniel says again: “And he shall desolate the
holy place; and sin has been given for a sacrifice,  and
righteousness been cast away in the earth, and he has been active
(fecit), and gone on prosperously.”  And the angel Gabriel, when
explaining his vision, states with regard to this person: “And towards
the end of their kingdom a king of a most fierce countenance shall
arise, one understanding [dark] questions, and exceedingly powerful,
full of wonders; and he shall corrupt, direct, influence (faciet), and
put strong men down, the holy people likewise; and his yoke shall be
directed as a wreath [round their neck]; deceit shall be in his hand,
and he shall be lifted up in his heart: he shall also ruin many by
deceit, and lead many to perdition, bruising them in his hand like
eggs.”  And then he points out the time that his tyranny shall
last, during which the saints shall be put to flight, they who offer a
pure sacrifice unto God: “And in the midst of the week,” he says, “the
sacrifice and the libation shall be taken away, and the abomination of
desolation [shall be brought] into the temple: even unto the
consummation of the time shall the desolation be complete.”  Now
three years and six months constitute the half-week.
5. From all these passages are revealed to us, not merely the
particulars of the apostasy, and [the doings] of him who concentrates
in himself every satanic error, but also, that there is one and the
same God the Father, who was declared by the prophets, but made
manifest by Christ. For if what Daniel prophesied concerning the end
has been confirmed by the Lord, when He said, “When ye shall see the
abomination of desolation, which has been spoken of by Daniel the
prophet”  (and the angel Gabriel gave the interpretation of the
visions to Daniel, and he is the archangel of the Creator (Demiurgi),
who also proclaimed to Mary the visible coming and the incarnation of
Christ), then one and the same God is most manifestly pointed out, who
 Matt. xxiv. 15, 21.
 Dan. vii. 8, etc.
 Dan. vii. 23, etc.
 2 Thess. ii. 8.
 John v. 43.
 Luke xviii. 2, etc.
 This may refer to Antiochus Epiphanes, Antichrist’s prototype,
who offered swine upon the altar in the temple at Jerusalem. The LXX.
version has, edothe epi ten thusian hamartia, i.e., sin has been given
against (or, upon) the sacrifice.
 Dan. viii. 12.
 Dan. viii. 23, etc.
 Dan. ix. 27.
 Matt. xxiv. 15.
 The mss. have “praemisit,” but Harvey suggests “promisit,” which
Chapter XXVI.—John and Daniel have predicted the dissolution and desolation
of the Roman Empire, which shall precede the end of the world and the eternal
kingdom of Christ. The Gnostics are refuted, those tools of Satan, who invent
another Father different from the Creator.
1. In a still clearer light has John, in the Apocalypse, indicated to
the Lord’s disciples what shall happen in the last times, and
concerning the ten kings who shall then arise, among whom the empire
which now rules [the earth] shall be partitioned. He teaches us what
the ten horns shall be which were seen by Daniel, telling us that thus
it had been said to him: “And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten
kings, who have received no kingdom as yet, but shall receive power as
if kings one hour with the beast. These have one mind, and give their
strength and power to the beast. These shall make war with the Lamb,
and the Lamb shall overcome them, because He is the Lord of lords and
the King of kings.”  It is manifest, therefore, that of these
[potentates], he who is to come shall slay three, and subject the
remainder to his power, and that he shall be himself the eighth among
them. And they shall lay Babylon waste, and burn her with fire, and shall give their kingdom to the beast, and put the Church to flight.
After that they shall be destroyed by the coming of our Lord. For that
the kingdom must be divided, and thus come to ruin, the Lord [declares
when He] says: “Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to
desolation, and every city or house divided against itself shall not
stand.”  It must be, therefore, that the kingdom, the city, and
the house be divided into ten; and for this reason He has already foreshadowed the partition and division [which shall take place].
Daniel also says particularly, that the end of the fourth kingdom
consists in the toes of the image seen by Nebuchadnezzar, upon which
came the stone cut out without hands; and as he does himself say: “The
feet were indeed the one part iron, the other part clay, until the
stone was cut out without hands, and struck the image upon the iron and
clay feet, and dashed them into pieces, even to the end.”  Then
afterwards, when interpreting this, he says: “And as thou sawest the
feet and the toes, partly indeed of clay, and partly of iron, the
kingdom shall be divided, and there shall be in it a root of iron, as
thou sawest iron mixed with baked clay. And the toes were indeed the
one part iron, but the other part clay.”  The ten toes,
therefore, are these ten kings, among whom the kingdom shall be
partitioned, of whom some indeed shall be strong and active, or
energetic; others, again, shall be sluggish and useless, and shall not
agree; as also Daniel says: “Some part of the kingdom shall be strong,
and part shall be broken from it. As thou sawest the iron mixed with
the baked clay, there shall be minglings among the human race, but no
cohesion one with the other, just as iron cannot be welded on to
pottery ware.”  And since an end shall take place, he says: “And
in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven raise up a kingdom
which shall never decay, and His kingdom shall not be left to another
people. It shall break in pieces and shatter all kingdoms, and shall
itself be exalted for ever. As thou sawest that the stone was cut
without hands from the mountain, and brake in pieces the baked clay,
the iron, the brass, the silver, and the gold, God has pointed out to
the king what shall come to pass after these things; and the dream is
true, and the interpretation trustworthy.” 
2. If therefore the great God showed future things by Daniel, and
confirmed them by His Son; and if Christ is the stone which is cut out
without hands, who shall destroy temporal kingdoms, and introduce an
eternal one, which is the resurrection of the just; as he declares,
“The God of heaven shall raise up a kingdom which shall never be
destroyed,”—let those thus confuted come to their senses, who reject
the Creator (Demiurgum), and do not agree that the prophets were sent
beforehand from the same Father from whom also the Lord came, but who
assert that prophecies originated from diverse powers. For those things
which have been predicted by the Creator alike through all the prophets
has Christ fulfilled in the end, ministering to His Father’s will, and
completing His dispensations with regard to the human race. Let those
persons, therefore, who blaspheme the Creator, either by openly
expressed words, such as the disciples of Marcion, or by a perversion
of the sense [of Scripture], as those of Valentinus and all the
Gnostics falsely so called, be recognised as agents of Satan by all
those who worship God; through whose agency Satan now, and not before,
has been seen to speak against God, even Him who has prepared eternal
fire for every kind of apostasy. For he did not venture to blaspheme
his Lord openly of himself; as also in the beginning he led man astray
through the instrumentality of the serpent, concealing himself as it
were from God. Truly has Justin remarked:  That before the Lord’s
appearance Satan never dared to blaspheme God, inasmuch as he did not
yet know his own sentence, because it was contained in parables and
allegories; but that after the Lord’s appearance, when he had clearly
ascertained from the words of Christ and His apostles that eternal fire
has been prepared for him as he apostatized from God of his own
free-will, and likewise for all who unrepentant continue in the
apostasy, he now blasphemes, by means of such men, the Lord who brings
judgment [upon him] as being already condemned, and imputes the guilt
of his apostasy to his Maker, not to his own voluntary disposition.
Just as it is with those who break the laws, when punishment overtakes
them: they throw the blame upon those who frame the laws, but not upon
themselves. In like manner do those men, filled with a satanic spirit,
bring innumerable accusations against our Creator, who has both given
to us the spirit of life, and established a law adapted for all; and
they will not admit that the judgment of God is just. Wherefore also
they set about imagining some other Father who neither cares about nor
exercises a providence over our affairs, nay, one who even approves of
 Rev. xvii. 12, etc.
 Matt. xii. 25.
 Dan. ii. 33, 34.
 Dan. ii. 41, 42.
 Dan. ii. 42, 43.
 Dan. ii. 44, 45.
 The Greek text is here preserved by Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., iv.
18; but we are not told from what work of Justin Martyr it is
extracted. The work is now lost. An ancient catena continues the Greek
Chapter XXVII.—The future judgment by Christ. Communion with and separation
from the divine being. The eternal punishment of unbelievers.
1. If the Father, then, does not exercise judgment, [it follows] that
judgment does not belong to Him, or that He consents to all those
actions which take place; and if He does not judge, all persons will be
equal, and accounted in the same condition. The advent of Christ will
therefore be without an object, yea, absurd, inasmuch as [in that case]
He exercises no judicial power. For “He came to divide a man against
his father, and the daughter against the mother, and the
daughter-in-law against the mother-in-law;”  and when two are in
one bed, to take the one, and to leave the other; and of two women
grinding at the mill, to take one and leave the other:  [also] at
the time of the end, to order the reapers to collect first the tares
together, and bind them in bundles, and burn them with unquenchable
fire, but to gather up the wheat into the barn;  and to call the
lambs into the kingdom prepared for them, but to send the goats into
everlasting fire, which has been prepared by His Father for the devil
and his angels.  And why is this? Has the Word come for the ruin
and for the resurrection of many? For the ruin, certainly, of those who
do not believe Him, to whom also He has threatened a greater damnation
in the judgment-day than that of Sodom and Gomorrah;  but for the
resurrection of believers, and those who do the will of His Father in
heaven. If then the advent of the Son comes indeed alike to all, but is
for the purpose of judging, and separating the believing from the
unbelieving, since, as those who believe do His will agreeably to their
own choice, and as, [also] agreeably to their own choice, the
disobedient do not consent to His doctrine; it is manifest that His
Father has made all in a like condition, each person having a choice of
his own, and a free understanding; and that He has regard to all things, and exercises a providence over all, “making His sun to rise upon the evil and on the good, and sending rain upon the just and unjust.” 
2. And to as many as continue in their love towards God, does He grant
communion with Him. But communion with God is life and light, and the
enjoyment of all the benefits which He has in store. But on as many as,
according to their own choice, depart from God, He inflicts that
separation from Himself which they have chosen of their own accord. But
separation from God is death, and separation from light is darkness;
and separation from God consists in the loss of all the benefits which
He has in store. Those, therefore, who cast away by apostasy these
forementioned things, being in fact destitute of all good, do
experience every kind of punishment. God, however, does not punish them
immediately of Himself, but that punishment falls upon them because
they are destitute of all that is good. Now, good things are eternal
and without end with God, and therefore the loss of these is also
eternal and never-ending. It is in this matter just as occurs in the
case of a flood of light: those who have blinded themselves, or have
been blinded by others, are for ever deprived of the enjoyment of
light. It is not, [however], that the light has inflicted upon them the
penalty of blindness, but it is that the blindness itself has brought
calamity upon them: and therefore the Lord declared, “He that believeth
in Me is not condemned,”  that is, is not separated from God, for
he is united to God through faith. On the other hand, He says, “He that
believeth not is condemned already, because he has not believed in the
name of the only-begotten Son of God;” that is, he separated himself
from God of his own accord. “For this is the condemnation, that light
is come into this world, and men have loved darkness rather than light.
For every one who doeth evil hateth the light, and cometh not to the
light, lest his deeds should be reproved. But he that doeth truth
cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that he has
 Matt. x. 25.
 Luke xvii. 34.
 Matt. xiii. 30.
 Matt. xxv. 33, etc.
 Luke x. 12.
 Matt. v. 45.
Chapter XXVIII.—The distinction to be made between the righteous and the
wicked. The future apostasy in the time of Antichrist, and the end of the
1. Inasmuch, then, as in this world (aioni) some persons betake themselves to the light, and by faith unite themselves with God, but others shun the light, and separate themselves from God, the Word of
God comes preparing a fit habitation for both. For those indeed who are
in the light, that they may derive enjoyment from it, and from the good
things contained in it; but for those in darkness, that they may
partake in its calamities. And on this account He says, that those upon
the right hand are called into the kingdom of heaven, but that those on
the left He will send into eternal fire for they have deprived themselves of all good.
2. And for this reason the apostle says: “Because they received not the
love of God, that they might be saved, therefore God shall also send
them the operation of error, that they may believe a lie, that they all
may be judged who have not believed the truth, but consented to
unrighteousness.”  For when he (Antichrist) is come, and of his
own accord concentrates in his own person the apostasy, and
accomplishes whatever he shall do according to his own will and choice,
sitting also in the temple of God, so that his dupes may adore him as
the Christ; wherefore also shall he deservedly “be cast into the lake
of fire:”  [this will happen according to divine appointment],
God by His prescience foreseeing all this, and at the proper time
sending such a man, “that they may believe a lie, that they all may be
judged who did not believe the truth, but consented to
unrighteousness;” whose coming John has thus described in the
Apocalypse: “And the beast which I had seen was like unto a leopard,
and his feet as of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion; and
the dragon conferred his own power upon him, and his throne, and great
might. And one of his heads was as it were slain unto death; and his deadly wound was healed, and all the world wondered after the beast.
And they worshipped the dragon because he gave power to the beast; and
they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto this beast, and who
is able to make war with him? And there was given unto him a mouth
speaking great things, and blasphemy and power was given to him during
forty and two months. And he opened his mouth for blasphemy against
God, to blaspheme His name and His tabernacle, and those who dwell in
heaven. And power was given him over every tribe, and people, and
tongue, and nation. And all who dwell upon the earth worshipped him,
[every one] whose name was not written in the book of the Lamb slain
from the foundation of the world. If any one have ears, let him hear.
If any one shall lead into captivity, he shall go into captivity. If
any shall slay with the sword, he must be slain with the sword. Here is
the endurance and the faith of the saints.”  After this he
likewise describes his armour-bearer, whom he also terms a false
prophet: “He spake as a dragon, and exercised all the power of the
first beast in his sight, and caused the earth, and those that dwell
therein, to adore the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And
he shall perform great wonders, so that he can even cause fire to
descend from heaven upon the earth in the sight of men, and he shall
lead the inhabitants of the earth astray.”  Let no one imagine
that he performs these wonders by divine power, but by the working of
magic. And we must not be surprised if, since the demons and apostate
spirits are at his service, he through their means performs wonders, by
which he leads the inhabitants of the earth astray. John says further:
“And he shall order an image of the beast to be made, and he shall give
breath to the image, so that the image shall speak; and he shall cause
those to be slain who will not adore it.” He says also: “And he will
cause a mark [to be put] in the forehead and in the right hand, that no
one may be able to buy or sell, unless he who has the mark of the name
of the beast or the number of his name; and the number is six hundred
and sixty-six,”  that is, six times a hundred, six times ten, and
six units. [He gives this] as a summing up of the whole of that apostasy which has taken place during six thousand years.
3. For in as many days as this world was made, in so many thousand years shall it be concluded. And for this reason the Scripture says:
“Thus the heaven and the earth were finished, and all their adornment.And God brought to a conclusion upon the sixth day the works that He had made; and God rested upon the seventh day from all His works.”
 This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is
a prophecy of what is to come. For the day of the Lord is as a thousand
years;  and in six days created things were completed: it is
evident, therefore, that they will come to an end at the sixth thousand
4. And therefore throughout all time, man, having been moulded at the
beginning by the hands of God, that is, of the Son and of the Spirit,
is made after the image and likeness of God: the chaff, indeed, which
is the apostasy, being cast away; but the wheat, that is, those who
bring forth fruit to God in faith, being gathered into the barn. And
for this cause tribulation is necessary for those who are saved, that
having been after a manner broken up, and rendered fine, and sprinkled
over by the patience of the Word of God, and set on fire [for
purification], they may be fitted for the royal banquet. As a certain
man of ours said, when he was condemned to the wild beasts because of
 2 Thess. ii. 10-12.
 Rev. xix. 20.
 Rev. xiii. 2, etc.
 Rev. xiii. 11, etc.
 Rev. xiii. 14, etc.
 Gen. ii. 2.
 2 Pet. iii. 8.
 This is quoted from the Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans, ch.
iv. It is found in the two Greek recensions of his works, and also in
the Syriac. See pp. 75 and 103 of this volume. The Latin translation is
here followed: the Greek of Ignatius would give “the wheat of God,” and
Chapter XXIX.—All things have been created for the service of man. The
deceits, wickedness, and apostate power of Antichrist. This was prefigured at
the deluge, as afterwards by the persecution of Shadrach, Meshach, and
1. In the previous books I have set forth the causes for which God
permitted these things to be made, and have pointed out that all such
have been created for the benefit of that human nature which is saved,
ripening for immortality that which is [possessed] of its own free will
and its own power, and preparing and rendering it more adapted for
eternal subjection to God. And therefore the creation is suited to [the
wants of] man; for man was not made for its sake, but creation for the
sake of man. Those nations, however, who did not of themselves raise up
their eyes unto heaven, nor returned thanks to their Maker, nor wished
to behold the light of truth, but who were like blind mice concealed in
the depths of ignorance, the word justly reckons “as waste water from a
sink, and as the turning-weight of a balance—in fact, as nothing;”
 so far useful and serviceable to the just, as stubble conduces
towards the growth of the wheat, and its straw, by means of combustion,
serves for working gold. And therefore, when in the end the Church shall be suddenly caught up from this, it is said, “There shall be tribulation such as has not been since the beginning, neither shall be.”  For this is the last contest of the righteous, in which, when they overcome they are crowned with incorruption.
2. And there is therefore in this beast, when he comes, a recapitulation made of all sorts of iniquity and of every deceit, in
order that all apostate power, flowing into and being shut up in him,
may be sent into the furnace of fire. Fittingly, therefore, shall his
name possess the number six hundred and sixty-six, since he sums up in
his own person all the commixture of wickedness which took place
previous to the deluge, due to the apostasy of the angels. For Noah was
six hundred years old when the deluge came upon the earth, sweeping
away the rebellious world, for the sake of that most infamous
generation which lived in the times of Noah. And [Antichrist] also sums
up every error of devised idols since the flood, together with the
slaying of the prophets and the cutting off of the just. For that image
which was set up by Nebuchadnezzar had indeed a height of sixty cubits,
while the breadth was six cubits; on account of which Ananias, Azarias,
and Mishaell, when they did not worship it, were cast into a furnace of
fire, pointing out prophetically, by what happened to them, the wrath
against the righteous which shall arise towards the [time of the] end.
For that image, taken as a whole, was a prefiguring of this man’s
coming, decreeing that he should undoubtedly himself alone be
worshipped by all men. Thus, then, the six hundred years of Noah, in
whose time the deluge occurred because of the apostasy, and the number
of the cubits of the image for which these just men were sent into the
fiery furnace, do indicate the number of the name of that man in whom
is concentrated the whole apostasy of six thousand years, and
unrighteousness, and wickedness, and false prophecy, and deception; for
 Isa. xl. 15.
Chapter XXX.—Although certain as to the number of the name of Antichrist, yet
we should come to no rash conclusions as to the name itself, because this
number is capable of being fitted to many names. Reasons for this point being
reserved by the Holy Spirit. Antichrist’s reign and death.
1. Such, then, being the state of the case, and this number being found
in all the most approved and ancient copies  [of the Apocalypse],
and those men who saw John face to face bearing their testimony [to
it]; while reason also leads us to conclude that the number of the name
of the beast, [if reckoned] according to the Greek mode of calculation
by the [value of] the letters contained in it, will amount to six
hundred and sixty and six; that is, the number of tens shall be equal
to that of the hundreds, and the number of hundreds equal to that of
the units (for that number which [expresses] the digit six being
adhered to throughout, indicates the recapitulations of that apostasy,
taken in its full extent, which occurred at the beginning, during the
intermediate periods, and which shall take place at the end),--I do not
know how it is that some have erred following the ordinary mode of
speech, and have vitiated the middle number in the name, deducting the
amount of fifty from it, so that instead of six decads they will have
it that there is but one. [I am inclined to think that this occurred
through the fault of the copyists, as is wont to happen, since numbers
also are expressed by letters; so that the Greek letter which expresses
the number sixty was easily expanded into the letter Iota of the
Greeks.]  Others then received this reading without examination;
some in their simplicity, and upon their own responsibility, making use
of this number expressing one decad; while some, in their inexperience,
have ventured to seek out a name which should contain the erroneous and
spurious number. Now, as regards those who have done this in
simplicity, and without evil intent, we are at liberty to assume that
pardon will be granted them by God. But as for those who, for the sake
of vainglory, lay it down for certain that names containing the
spurious number are to be accepted, and affirm that this name, hit upon
by themselves, is that of him who is to come; such persons shall not
come forth without loss, because they have led into error both
themselves and those who confided in them. Now, in the first place, it
is loss to wander from the truth, and to imagine that as being the case
which is not; then again, as there shall be no light punishment [inflicted] upon him who either adds or subtracts anything from the Scripture,  under that such a person must necessarily fall.
Moreover, another danger, by no means trifling, shall overtake those
who falsely presume that they know the name of Antichrist. For if these
men assume one [number], when this [Antichrist] shall come having
another, they will be easily led away by him, as supposing him not to
be the expected one, who must be guarded against.
2. These men, therefore, ought to learn [what really is the state of
the case], and go back to the true number of the name, that they be not
reckoned among false prophets. But, knowing the sure number declared by
Scripture, that is, six hundred sixty and six, let them await, in the
first place, the division of the kingdom into ten; then, in the next
place, when these kings are reigning, and beginning to set their
affairs in order, and advance their kingdom, [let them learn] to
acknowledge that he who shall come claiming the kingdom for himself,
and shall terrify those men of whom we have been speaking, having a
name containing the aforesaid number, is truly the abomination of
desolation. This, too, the apostle affirms: “When they shall say, Peace
and safety, then sudden destruction shall come upon them.”  And
Jeremiah does not merely point out his sudden coming, but he even
indicates the tribe from which he shall come, where he says, “We shall
hear the voice of his swift horses from Dan; the whole earth shall be
moved by the voice of the neighing of his galloping horses: he shall
also come and devour the earth, and the fulness thereof, the city also,
and they that dwell therein.”  This, too, is the reason that this
tribe is not reckoned in the Apocalypse along with those which are saved. 
3. It is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await the fulfilment of the prophecy, than to be making surmises, and casting
about for any names that may present themselves, inasmuch as many names
can be found possessing the number mentioned; and the same question
will, after all, remain unsolved. For if there are many names found
possessing this number, it will be asked which among them shall the
coming man bear. It is not through a want of names containing the
number of that name that I say this, but on account of the fear of God,
and zeal for the truth: for the name Evanthas (EUANThAS) contains the
required number, but I make no allegation regarding it. Then also
Lateinos (LATEINOS) has the number six hundred and sixty-six; and it is
a very probable [solution], this being the name of the last kingdom [of
the four seen by Daniel]. For the Latins are they who at present bear
rule:  I will not, however, make any boast over this
[coincidence]. Teitan too, (TEITAN, the first syllable being written
with the two Greek vowels e and i, among all the names which are found
among us, is rather worthy of credit. For it has in itself the
predicted number, and is composed of six letters, each syllable
containing three letters; and [the word itself] is ancient, and removed
from ordinary use; for among our kings we find none bearing this name
Titan, nor have any of the idols which are worshipped in public among
the Greeks and barbarians this appellation. Among many persons, too,
this name is accounted divine, so that even the sun is termed “Titan”
by those who do now possess [the rule]. This word, too, contains a
certain outward appearance of vengeance, and of one inflicting merited
punishment because he (Antichrist) pretends that he vindicates the
oppressed.  And besides this, it is an ancient name, one worthy
of credit, of royal dignity, and still further, a name belonging to a
tyrant. Inasmuch, then, as this name “Titan” has so much to recommend
it, there is a strong degree of probability, that from among the many
[names suggested], we infer, that perchance he who is to come shall be
called “Titan.” We will not, however, incur the risk of pronouncing
positively as to the name of Antichrist; for if it were necessary that
his name should be distinctly revealed in this present time, it would
have been announced by him who beheld the apocalyptic vision. For that
was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, towards the end of Domitian’s reign.
4. But he indicates the number of the name now, that when this man comes we may avoid him, being aware who he is: the name, however, is suppressed, because it is not worthy of being proclaimed by the Holy Spirit. For if it had been declared by Him, he (Antichrist) might
perhaps continue for a long period. But now as “he was, and is not, and
shall ascend out of the abyss, and goes into perdition,”  as one
who has no existence; so neither has his name been declared, for the
name of that which does not exist is not proclaimed. But when this
Antichrist shall have devastated all things in this world, he will
reign for three years and six months, and sit in the temple at
Jerusalem; and then the Lord will come from heaven in the clouds, in
the glory of the Father, sending this man and those who follow him into
the lake of fire; but bringing in for the righteous the times of the
kingdom, that is, the rest, the hallowed seventh day; and restoring to
Abraham the promised inheritance, in which kingdom the Lord declared,
that “many coming from the east and from the west should sit down with
 en pasi tois spoudaiois kai archaiois antigraphois This passage
is interesting, as showing how very soon the autographs of the New
Testament must have perished, and various readings crept into the mss.
of the canonical books.
 That is, X into EI, according to Harvey, who considers the whole
of this clause as an evident interpolation. It does not occur in the Greek here preserved by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., v. 8).
 Rev. xxii. 19.
 1 Thess. v. 3.
 Jer. viii. 16.
 Rev. vii. 5-7. [The Danites (though not all) corrupted the Hebrew church and the Levitical priesthood, by image-worship, (Judg. xviii.), and forfeited the blessings of the old covenant.]
 [A very pregnant passage, as has often been noted. But let us imitate the pious reticence with which this section concludes.]
 Massuet here quotes Cicero and Ovid in proof of the sun being termed Titan. The Titans waged war against the gods, to avenge themselves upon Saturn.
 Rev. xvii. 8.
Chapter XXXI.—The preservation of our bodies is confirmed by the resurrection
and ascension of Christ: the souls of the saints during the intermediate
period are in a state of expectation of that time when they shall receive
their perfect and consummated glory.
1. Since, again, some who are reckoned among the orthodox go beyond the
pre-arranged plan for the exaltation of the just, and are ignorant of
the methods by which they are disciplined beforehand for incorruption,
they thus entertain heretical opinions. For the heretics, despising the
handiwork of God, and not admitting the salvation of their flesh, while
they also treat the promise of God contemptuously, and pass beyond God
altogether in the sentiments they form, affirm that immediately upon
their death they shall pass above the heavens and the Demiurge, and go
to the Mother (Achamoth) or to that Father whom they have feigned.
Those persons, therefore, who disallow a resurrection affecting the
whole man (universam reprobant resurrectionem), and as far as in them
lies remove it from the midst [of the Christian scheme], how can they
be wondered at, if again they know nothing as to the plan of the
resurrection? For they do not choose to understand, that if these
things are as they say, the Lord Himself, in whom they profess to
believe, did not rise again upon the third day; but immediately upon
His expiring on the cross, undoubtedly departed on high, leaving His
body to the earth. But the case was, that for three days He dwelt in
the place where the dead were, as the prophet says concerning Him: “And
the Lord remembered His dead saints who slept formerly in the land of
sepulture; and He descended to them, to rescue and save them.” 
And the Lord Himself says, “As Jonas remained three days and three
nights in the whale’s belly, so shall the Son of man be in the heart of
the earth.”  Then also the apostle says, “But when He ascended,
what is it but that He also descended into the lower parts of the
earth?”  This, too, David says when prophesying of Him, “And thou
hast delivered my soul from the nethermost hell;”  and on His
rising again the third day, He said to Mary, who was the first to see
and to worship Him, “Touch Me not, for I have not yet ascended to the
Father; but go to the disciples, and say unto them, I ascend unto My Father, and unto your Father.” 
2. If, then, the Lord observed the law of the dead, that He might become the first-begotten from the dead, and tarried until the third
day “in the lower parts of the earth;”  then afterwards rising in
the flesh, so that He even showed the print of the nails to His
disciples,  He thus ascended to the Father;--[if all these things
occurred, I say], how must these men not be put to confusion, who
allege that “the lower parts” refer to this world of ours, but that
their inner man, leaving the body here, ascends into the
super-celestial place? For as the Lord “went away in the midst of the
shadow of death,”  where the souls of the dead were, yet
afterwards arose in the body, and after the resurrection was taken up
[into heaven], it is manifest that the souls of His disciples also,
upon whose account the Lord underwent these things, shall go away into
the invisible place allotted to them by God, and there remain until the
resurrection, awaiting that event; then receiving their bodies, and
rising in their entirety, that is bodily, just as the Lord arose, they
shall come thus into the presence of God. “For no disciple is above the
Master, but every one that is perfect shall be as his Master.” 
As our Master, therefore, did not at once depart, taking flight [to
heaven], but awaited the time of His resurrection prescribed by the
Father, which had been also shown forth through Jonas, and rising again
 See the note, book iii. xx. 4.
 Matt. xi. 40.
 Eph. iv. 9.
 Ps. lxxxvi. 23.
 John xx. 17.
 Eph. iv. 9.
 John xx. 20, 27.
 Ps. xxiii. 4.
 Luke vi. 40.
 The five following chapters were omitted in the earlier
editions, but added by Feuardentius. Most mss., too, did not contain
them. It is probable that the scribes of the middle ages rejected them
on account of their inculcating millenarian notions, which had been
long extinct in the Church. Quotations from these five chapters have
been collected by Harvey from Syriac and Armenian mss. lately come to
Chapter XXXII.—In that flesh in which the saints have suffered so many
afflictions, they shall receive the fruits of their labours; especially since
all creation waits for this, and God promises it to Abraham and his seed.
1. Inasmuch, therefore, as the opinions of certain [orthodox persons]
are derived from heretical discourses, they are both ignorant of God’s
dispensations, and of the mystery of the resurrection of the just, and
of the [earthly] kingdom which is the commencement of incorruption, by
means of which kingdom those who shall be worthy are accustomed
gradually to partake of the divine nature (capere Deum  ); and it
is necessary to tell them respecting those things, that it behoves the
righteous first to receive the promise of the inheritance which God
promised to the fathers, and to reign in it, when they rise again to
behold God in this creation which is renovated, and that the judgment
should take place afterwards. For it is just that in that very creation
in which they toiled or were afflicted, being proved in every way by
suffering, they should receive the reward of their suffering; and that
in the creation in which they were slain because of their love to God,
in that they should be revived again; and that in the creation in which
they endured servitude, in that they should reign. For God is rich in
all things, and all things are His. It is fitting, therefore, that the
creation itself, being restored to its primeval condition, should
without restraint be under the dominion of the righteous; and the
apostle has made this plain in the Epistle to the Romans, when he thus
speaks: “For the expectation of the creature waiteth for the
manifestation of the sons of God. For the creature has been subjected
to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the
same in hope; since the creature itself shall also be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the sons of God.” 
2. Thus, then, the promise of God, which He gave to Abraham, remains stedfast. For thus He said: “Lift up thine eyes, and look from this place where now thou art, towards the north and south, and east and west. For all the earth which thou seest, I will give to thee and to thy seed, even for ever.”  And again He says, “Arise, and go
through the length and breadth of the land, since I will give it unto
thee;”  and [yet] he did not receive an inheritance in it, not even a footstep, but was always a stranger and a pilgrim therein.
 And upon the death of Sarah his wife, when the Hittites were
willing to bestow upon him a place where he might bury her, he declined
it as a gift, but bought the burying-place (giving for it four hundred
talents of silver) from Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite. 
Thus did he await patiently the promise of God, and was unwilling to
appear to receive from men, what God had promised to give him, when He
said again to him as follows: “I will give this land to thy seed, from
the river of Egypt even unto the great river Euphrates.”  If,
then, God promised him the inheritance of the land, yet he did not
receive it during all the time of his sojourn there, it must be, that
together with his seed, that is, those who fear God and believe in Him,
he shall receive it at the resurrection of the just. For his seed is
the Church, which receives the adoption to God through the Lord, as
John the Baptist said: “For God is able from the stones to raise up
children to Abraham.”  Thus also the apostle says in the Epistle
to the Galatians: “But ye, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of
the promise.”  And again, in the same Epistle, he plainly
declares that they who have believed in Christ do receive Christ, the
promise to Abraham thus saying, “The promises were spoken to Abraham,
and to his seed. Now He does not say, And of seeds, as if [He spake] of
many, but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.”  And
again, confirming his former words, he says, “Even as Abraham believed
God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness. Know ye therefore,
that they which are of faith are the children of Abraham. But the
Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith,
declared to Abraham beforehand, That in thee shall all nations be
blessed. So then they which are of faith shall be blessed with faithful
Abraham.”  Thus, then, they who are of faith shall be blessed
with faithful Abraham, and these are the children of Abraham. Now God
made promise of the earth to Abraham and his seed; yet neither Abraham
nor his seed, that is, those who are justified by faith, do now receive
any inheritance in it; but they shall receive it at the resurrection of
 Or, “gradually to comprehend God.”
 Rom. viii. 19, etc.
 Gen. xiii. 13, 14.
 Gen. xiii. 17.
 Acts vii. 5; Heb. xi. 13.
 Gen. xxiii. 11.
 Gen. xv. 13.
 Luke iii. 8.
 Gal. iv. 28.
 Gal. iii. 16.
 Gal. iii. 6, etc.
Chapter XXXIII.—Further proofs of the same proposition, drawn from the
promises made by Christ, when He declared that He would drink of the fruit of
the vine with His disciples in His Father’s kingdom, while at the same time He
promised to reward them an hundred-fold, and to make them partake of banquets.
The blessing pronounced by Jacob had pointed out this already, as Papias and
the elders have interpreted it.
1. For this reason, when about to undergo His sufferings, that He might
declare to Abraham and those with him the glad tidings of the
inheritance being thrown open, [Christ], after He had given thanks
while holding the cup, and had drunk of it, and given it to the
disciples, said to them: “Drink ye all of it: this is My blood of the
new covenant, which shall be shed for many for the remission of sins.
But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of the fruit of this
vine, until that day when I will drink it new with you in my Father’s
kingdom.”  Thus, then, He will Himself renew the inheritance of
the earth, and will re-organize the mystery of the glory of [His] sons;
as David says, “He who hath renewed the face of the earth.”  He
promised to drink of the fruit of the vine with His disciples, thus
indicating both these points: the inheritance of the earth in which the
new fruit of the vine is drunk, and the resurrection of His disciples
in the flesh. For the new flesh which rises again is the same which
also received the new cup. And He cannot by any means be understood as
drinking of the fruit of the vine when settled down with his
[disciples] above in a super-celestial place; nor, again, are they who
drink it devoid of flesh, for to drink of that which flows from the vine pertains to flesh, and not spirit.
2. And for this reason the Lord declared, “When thou makest a dinner or
a supper, do not call thy friends, nor thy neighbours, nor thy
kinsfolk, lest they ask thee in return, and so repay thee. But call the
lame, the blind, and the poor, and thou shall be blessed, since they
cannot recompense thee, but a recompense shall be made thee at the
resurrection of the just.”  And again He says, “Whosoever shall
have left lands, or houses, or parents, or brethren, or children
because of Me, he shall receive in this world an hundred-fold, and in
that to come he shall inherit eternal life.”  For what are the
hundred-fold [rewards] in this word, the entertainments given to the
poor, and the suppers for which a return is made? These are [to take
place] in the times of the kingdom, that is, upon the seventh day,
which has been sanctified, in which God rested from all the works which
He created, which is the true Sabbath of the righteous, which they
shall not be engaged in any earthly occupation; but shall have a table
at hand prepared for them by God, supplying them with all sorts of dishes.
3. The blessing of Isaac with which he blessed his younger son Jacob
has the same meaning, when he says, “Behold, the smell of my son is as
the smell of a full field which the Lord has blessed.”  But “the
field is the world.”  And therefore he added, “God give to thee
of the dew of heaven, and of the fatness of the earth, plenty of corn
and wine. And let the nations serve thee, and kings bow down to thee;
and be thou lord over thy brother, and thy father’s sons shall bow down
to thee: cursed shall be he who shall curse thee, and blessed shall be
he who shall bless thee.”  If any one, then, does not accept
these things as referring to the appointed kingdom, he must fall into
much contradiction and contrariety, as is the case with the Jews, who
are involved in absolute perplexity. For not only did not the nations
in this life serve this Jacob; but even after he had received the
blessing, he himself going forth [from his home], served his uncle
Laban the Syrian for twenty years;  and not only was he not made
lord of his brother, but he did himself bow down before his brother
Esau, upon his return from Mesopotamia to his father, and offered many
gifts to him.  Moreover, in what way did he inherit much corn and
wine here, he who emigrated to Egypt because of the famine which
possessed the land in which he was dwelling, and became subject to
Pharaoh, who was then ruling over Egypt? The predicted blessing,
therefore, belongs unquestionably to the times of the kingdom, when the
righteous shall bear rule upon their rising from the dead;  when
also the creation, having been renovated and set free, shall fructify
with an abundance of all kinds of food, from the dew of heaven, and
from the fertility of the earth: as the elders who saw John, the
disciple of the Lord, related that they had heard from him how the Lord
used to teach in regard to these times, and say: The days will come, in
which vines shall grow, each having ten thousand branches, and in each
branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true  twig ten thousand
shoots, and in each one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on
every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every grape when
pressed will give five and twenty metretes of wine. And when any one of
the saints shall lay hold of a cluster,  another shall cry out,
“I am a better cluster, take me; bless the Lord through me.” In like
manner [the Lord declared] that a grain of wheat would produce ten
thousand ears, and that every ear should have ten thousand grains, and
every grain would yield ten pounds (quinque bilibres) of clear, pure,
fine flour; and that all other fruit-bearing trees,  and seeds
and grass, would produce in similar proportions (secundum congruentiam
iis consequentem); and that all animals feeding [only] on the productions of the earth, should [in those days] become peaceful and harmonious among each other, and be in perfect subjection to man.
4. And these things are borne witness to in writing by Papias, the hearer of John, and a companion of Polycarp, in his fourth book; for there were five books compiled (suntetagmena) by him.  And he
says in addition, “Now these things are credible to believers.” And he
says that, “when the traitor Judas did not give credit to them, and put
the question, How then can things about to bring forth so abundantly be
wrought by the Lord?’ the Lord declared, They who shall come to these
[times] shall see.’ “ When prophesying of these times, therefore,
Esaias says: “The wolf also shall feed with the lamb, and the leopard
shall take his rest with the kid; the calf also, and the bull, and the
lion shall eat together; and a little boy shall lead them. The ox and
the bear shall feed together, and their young ones shall agree
together; and the lion shall eat straw as well as the ox. And the
infant boy shall thrust his hand into the asp’s den, into the nest also
of the adder’s brood; and they shall do no harm, nor have power to hurt
anything in my holy mountain.” And again he says, in recapitulation,
“Wolves and lambs shall then browse together, and the lion shall eat
straw like the ox, and the serpent earth as if it were bread; and they
shall neither hurt nor annoy anything in my holy mountain, saith the
Lord.”  I am quite aware that some persons endeavour to refer
these words to the case of savage men, both of different nations and
various habits, who come to believe, and when they have believed, act
in harmony with the righteous. But although this is [true] now with
regard to some men coming from various nations to the harmony of the
faith, nevertheless in the resurrection of the just [the words shall
also apply] to those animals mentioned. For God is rich in all things.
And it is right that when the creation is restored, all the animals
should obey and be in subjection to man, and revert to the food
originally given by God (for they had been originally subjected in
obedience to Adam), that is, the productions of the earth. But some
other occasion, and not the present, is [to be sought] for showing that
the lion shall [then] feed on straw. And this indicates the large size
and rich quality of the fruits. For if that animal, the lion, feeds
upon straw [at that period], of what a quality must the wheat itself be
 Matt. xxvi. 27.
 Ps. civ. 30.
 Luke xiv. 12, 13.
 Matt. xix. 29; Luke xviii. 29, 30.
 Gen. xxvii. 27, etc.
 Matt. xiii. 38.
 Gen. xxvii. 28, 29.
 Gen. xxxi. 41.
 Gen. xxxiii. 3.
 From this to the end of the section there is an Armenian version
extant, to be found in the Spicil. Solesm. i. p. 1, edited by M. Pitra,
Paris 1852, and which was taken by him from an Armenian ms. in the Mechitarist Library at Venice, described as being of the twelfth century.
 This word “true” is not found in the Armenian.
 Or, following Arm. vers., “But if any one shall lay hold of an
 The Arm. vers. is here followed; the old Latin reads, “Et reliqua autem poma.”
 [See pp. 151-154, this volume.]
Chapter XXXIV.—He fortifies his opinions with regard to the temporal and
earthly kingdom of the saints after their resurrection, by the various
testimonies of Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and Daniel; also by the parable of
the servants watching, to whom the Lord promised that He would minister.
1. Then, too, Isaiah himself has plainly declared that there shall be
joy of this nature at the resurrection of the just, when he says: “The
dead shall rise again; those, too, who are in the tombs shall arise,
and those who are in the earth shall rejoice. For the dew from Thee is
health to them.”  And this again Ezekiel also says: “Behold, I
will open your tombs, and will bring you forth out of your graves; when
I will draw my people from the sepulchres, and I will put breath in
you, and ye shall live; and I will place you on your own land, and ye
shall know that I am the Lord.”  And again the same speaks thus:
“These things saith the Lord, I will gather Israel from all nations
whither they have been driven, and I shall be sanctified in them in the
sight of the sons of the nations: and they shall dwell in their own
land, which I gave to my servant Jacob. And they shall dwell in it in
peace; and they shall build houses, and plant vineyards, and dwell in
hope, when I shall cause judgment to fall among all who have
dishonoured them, among those who encircle them round about; and they
shall know that I am the Lord their God, and the God of their fathers.”
 Now I have shown a short time ago that the church is the seed of
Abraham; and for this reason, that we may know that He who in the New
Testament “raises up from the stones children unto Abraham,”  is
He who will gather, according to the Old Testament, those that shall be
saved from all the nations, Jeremiah says: “Behold, the days come,
saith the Lord, that they shall no more say, The Lord liveth, who led
the children of Israel from the north, and from every region whither
they had been driven; He will restore them to their own land which He
gave to their fathers.” 
2. That the whole creation shall, according to God’s will, obtain a
vast increase, that it may bring forth and sustain fruits such [as we
have mentioned], Isaiah declares: “And there shall be upon every high
mountain, and upon every prominent hill, water running everywhere in
that day, when many shall perish, when walls shall fall. And the light
of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, seven times that of the
day, when He shall heal the anguish of His people, and do away with the
pain of His stroke.”  Now “the pain of the stroke” means that
inflicted at the beginning upon disobedient man in Adam, that is,
death; which [stroke] the Lord will heal when He raises us from the
dead, and restores the inheritance of the fathers, as Isaiah again
says: “And thou shall be confident in the Lord, and He will cause thee
to pass over the whole earth, and feed thee with the inheritance of
Jacob thy father.”  This is what the Lord declared: “Happy are
those servants whom the Lord when He cometh shall find watching. Verily
I say unto you, that He shall gird Himself, and make them to sit down
[to meat], and will come forth and serve them. And if He shall come in
the evening watch, and find them so, blessed are they, because He shall
make them sit down, and minister to them; or if this be in the second,
or it be in the third, blessed are they.”  Again John also says
the very same in the Apocalypse: “Blessed and holy is he who has part
in the first resurrection.”  Then, too, Isaiah has declared the
time when these events shall occur; he says: “And I said, Lord, how
long? Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses be
without men, and the earth be left a desert. And after these things the
Lord shall remove us men far away (longe nos faciet Deus homines), and
those who shall remain shall multiply upon the earth.”  Then
Daniel also says this very thing: “And the kingdom and dominion, and
the greatness of those under the heaven, is given to the saints of the
Most High God, whose kingdom is everlasting, and all dominions shall
serve and obey Him.”  And lest the promise named should be
understood as referring to this time, it was declared to the prophet:
“And come thou, and stand in thy lot at the consummation of the days.”
3. Now, that the promises were not announced to the prophets and the fathers alone, but to the Churches united to these from the nations, whom also the Spirit terms “the islands” (both because they are established in the midst of turbulence, suffer the storm of blasphemies, exist as a harbour of safety to those in peril, and are the refuge of those who love the height [of heaven], and strive to avoid Bythus, that is, the depth of error), Jeremiah thus declares:
“Hear the word of the Lord, ye nations, and declare it to the isles
afar off; say ye, that the Lord will scatter Israel, He will gather
him, and keep him, as one feeding his flock of sheep. For the Lord hath
redeemed Jacob, and rescued him from the hand of one stronger than he.
And they shall come and rejoice in Mount Zion, and shall come to what
is good, and into a land of wheat, and wine, and fruits, of animals and
of sheep; and their soul shall be as a tree bearing fruit, and they
shall hunger no more. At that time also shall the virgins rejoice in
the company of the young men: the old men, too, shall be glad, and I
will turn their sorrow into joy; and I will make them exult, and will
magnify them, and satiate the souls of the priests the sons of Levi;
and my people shall be satiated with my goodness.”  Now, in the
preceding book  I have shown that all the disciples of the Lord
are Levites and priests, they who used in the temple to profane the Sabbath, but are blameless.  Promises of such a nature, therefore, do indicate in the clearest manner the feasting of that creation in the kingdom of the righteous, which God promises that He will Himself serve.
4. Then again, speaking of Jerusalem, and of Him reigning there, Isaiah
declares, “Thus saith the Lord, Happy is he who hath seed in Zion, and
servants in Jerusalem. Behold, a righteous king shall reign, and
princes shall rule with judgment.”  And with regard to the
foundation on which it shall be rebuilt, he says: “Behold, I will lay
in order for thee a carbuncle stone, and sapphire for thy foundations;
and I will lay thy ramparts with jasper, and thy gates with crystal,
and thy wall with choice stones: and all thy children shall be taught
of God, and great shall be the peace of thy children; and in
righteousness shalt thou be built up.”  And yet again does he say
the same thing: “Behold, I make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and my people [a
joy]; for the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the
voice of crying. Also there shall not be there any immature [one], nor
an old man who does not fulfil his time: for the youth shall be of a
hundred years; and the sinner shall die a hundred years old, yet shall
be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them themselves;
and shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them themselves, and
shall drink wine. And they shall not build, and others inhabit; neither
shall they prepare the vineyard, and others eat. For as the days of the
tree of life shall be the days of the people in thee; for the works of
 Isa. xxvi. 19.
 Ezek. xxxvii. 12, etc.
 Ezek. xxviii. 25, 26.
 Matt. iii. 9.
 Jer. xxiii. 6, 7.
 Isa. xxx. 25, 26.
 Isa. lviii. 14.
 Luke xii. 37, 38.
 Rev. xx. 6.
 Isa. vi. 11.
 Dan. vii. 27.
 Dan. xii. 13.
 Jer. xxxi. 10, etc.
 See. iv. 8, 3.
 Matt. xii. 5.
 Isa. xxxi. 9, Isa. xxxii. 1.
 Isa. liv. 11-14.
Chapter XXXV.—He contends that these testimonies already alleged cannot be
understood allegorically of celestial blessings, but that they shall have
their fulfilment after the coming of Antichrist, and the resurrection, in the
terrestrial Jerusalem. To the former prophecies he subjoins others drawn from
Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Apocalypse of John.
1. If, however, any shall endeavour to allegorize [prophecies] of this
kind, they shall not be found consistent with themselves in all points,
and shall be confuted by the teaching of the very expressions [in
question]. For example: “When the cities” of the Gentiles “shall be
desolate, so that they be not inhabited, and the houses so that there
shall be no men in them and the land shall be left desolate.” 
“For, behold,” says Isaiah, “the day of the Lord cometh past remedy,
full of fury and wrath, to lay waste the city of the earth, and to root
sinners out of it.”  And again he says, “Let him be taken away,
that he behold not the glory of God.”  And when these things are
done, he says, “God will remove men far away, and those that are left
shall multiply in the earth.”  “And they shall build houses, and
shall inhabit them themselves: and plant vineyards, and eat of them
themselves.”  For all these and other words were unquestionably
spoken in reference to the resurrection of the just, which takes place
after the coming of Antichrist, and the destruction of all nations
under his rule; in [the times of] which [resurrection] the righteous
shall reign in the earth, waxing stronger by the sight of the Lord: and
through Him they shall become accustomed to partake in the glory of God
the Father, and shall enjoy in the kingdom intercourse and communion
with the holy angels, and union with spiritual beings; and [with
respect to] those whom the Lord shall find in the flesh, awaiting Him
from heaven, and who have suffered tribulation, as well as escaped the
hands of the Wicked one. For it is in reference to them that the
prophet says: “And those that are left shall multiply upon the earth,”
And Jeremiah  the prophet has pointed out, that as many believers
as God has prepared for this purpose, to multiply those left upon
earth, should both be under the rule of the saints to minister to this
Jerusalem, and that [His] kingdom shall be in it, saying, “Look around
Jerusalem towards the east, and behold the joy which comes to thee from
God Himself. Behold, thy sons shall come whom thou hast sent forth:
they shall come in a band from the east even unto the west, by the word
of that Holy One, rejoicing in that splendour which is from thy God. O
Jerusalem, put off thy robe of mourning and of affliction, and put on
that beauty of eternal splendour from thy God. Gird thyself with the
double garment of that righteousness proceeding from thy God; place the
mitre of eternal glory upon thine head. For God will show thy glory to
the whole earth under heaven. For thy name shall for ever be called by
God Himself, the peace of righteousness and glory to him that worships
God. Arise, Jerusalem, stand on high, and look towards the east, and
behold thy sons from the rising of the sun, even to the west, by the
Word of that Holy One, rejoicing in the very remembrance of God. For
the footmen have gone forth from thee, while they were drawn away by
the enemy. God shall bring them in to thee, being borne with glory as
the throne of a kingdom. For God has decreed that every high mountain
shall be brought low, and the eternal hills, and that the valleys be
filled, so that the surface of the earth be rendered smooth, that
Israel, the glory of God, may walk in safety. The woods, too, shall
make shady places, and every sweet-smelling tree shall be for Israel
itself by the command of God. For God shall go before with joy in the
light of His splendour, with the pity and righteousness which proceeds
2. Now all these things being such as they are, cannot be understood in
reference to super-celestial matters; “for God,” it is said, “will show
to the whole earth that is under heaven thy glory.” But in the times of
the kingdom, the earth has been called again by Christ [to its pristine
condition], and Jerusalem rebuilt after the pattern of the Jerusalem
above, of which the prophet Isaiah says, “Behold, I have depicted thy
walls upon my hands, and thou art always in my sight.”  And the
apostle, too, writing to the Galatians, says in like manner, “But the
Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.”
 He does not say this with any thought of an erratic AEon, or of
any other power which departed from the Pleroma, or of Prunicus, but of
the Jerusalem which has been delineated on [God’s] hands. And in the
Apocalypse John saw this new [Jerusalem] descending upon the new earth.
 For after the times of the kingdom, he says, “I saw a great
white throne, and Him who sat upon it, from whose face the earth fled
away, and the heavens; and there was no more place for them.” 
And he sets forth, too, the things connected with the general
resurrection and the judgment, mentioning “the dead, great and small.”
“The sea,” he says, “gave up the dead which it had in it, and death and
hell delivered up the dead that they contained; and the books were
opened. Moreover,” he says, “the book of life was opened, and the dead
were judged out of those things that were written in the books,
according to their works; and death and hell were sent into the lake of
fire, the second death.”  Now this is what is called Gehenna,
which the Lord styled eternal fire.  “And if any one,” it is
said, “was not found written in the book of life, he was sent into the
lake of fire.”  And after this, he says, “I saw a new heaven and
a new earth, for the first heaven and earth have passed away; also
there was no more sea. And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming
down from heaven, as a bride adorned for her husband.” “And I heard,”
it is said, “a great voice from the throne, saying, Behold, the
tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them; and they
shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them as their God.
And He will wipe away every tear from their eyes; and death shall be no
more, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain,
because the former things have passed away.”  Isaiah also
declares the very same: “For there shall be a new heaven and a new
earth; and there shall be no remembrance of the former, neither shall
the heart think about them, but they shall find in it joy and
exultation.”  Now this is what has been said by the apostle: “For
the fashion of this world passeth away.”  To the same purpose did
the Lord also declare, “Heaven and earth shall pass away.”  When
these things, therefore, pass away above the earth, John, the Lord’s
disciple, says that the new Jerusalem above shall [then] descend, as a
bride adorned for her husband; and that this is the tabernacle of God,
in which God will dwell with men. Of this Jerusalem the former one is
an image—that Jerusalem of the former earth in which the righteous are
disciplined beforehand for incorruption and prepared for salvation. And
of this tabernacle Moses received the pattern in the mount;  and
nothing is capable of being allegorized, but all things are stedfast,
and true, and substantial, having been made by God for righteous men’s
enjoyment. For as it is God truly who raises up man, so also does man
truly rise from the dead, and not allegorically, as I have shown
repeatedly. And as he rises actually, so also shall he be actually
disciplined beforehand for incorruption, and shall go forwards and
flourish in the times of the kingdom, in order that he may be capable
of receiving the glory of the Father. Then, when all things are made
new, he shall truly dwell in the city of God. For it is said, “He that
sitteth on the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And the Lord
says, Write all this; for these words are faithful and true. And He
 Isa. vi. 11.
 Isa. xiii. 9.
 Isa. xxvi. 10.
 Isa. vi. 12.
 Isa. lxv. 21.
 The long quotation following is not found in Jeremiah, but in
the apocryphal book of Baruch iv. 36, etc., and the whole of Baruch v.
 Isa. xlix. 16.
 Gal. iv. 26.
 Rev. xxi. 2.
 Rev. xx. 11.
 Rev. xx. 12-14.
 Matt. xxv. 41.
 Rev. xx. 15.
 Rev. xxi. 1-4.
 Isa. lxv. 17, 18.
 1 Cor. vii. 31.
 Matt. xxvi. 35.
 Ex. xxv. 40.
Chapter XXXVI.—Men shall be actually raised: the world shall not be
annihilated; but there shall be various mansions for the saints, according to
the rank allotted to each individual. All things shall be subject to God the
Father, and so shall He be all in all.
1. For since there are real men, so must there also be a real establishment (plantationem), that they vanish not away among non-existent things, but progress among those which have an actual
existence. For neither is the substance nor the essence of the creation
annihilated (for faithful and true is He who has established it), but
“the fashion of the world passeth away;”  that is, those things
among which transgression has occurred, since man has grown old in
them. And therefore this [present] fashion has been formed temporary,
God foreknowing all things; as I have pointed out in the preceding
book,  and have also shown, as far as was possible, the cause of
the creation of this world of temporal things. But when this [present]
fashion [of things] passes away, and man has been renewed, and
flourishes in an incorruptible state, so as to preclude the possibility
of becoming old, [then] there shall be the new heaven and the new
earth, in which the new man shall remain [continually], always holding
fresh converse with God. And since (or, that) these things shall ever
continue without end, Isaiah declares, “For as the new heavens and the
new earth which I do make, continue in my sight, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain.”  And as the presbyters say, Then those who are deemed worthy of an abode in heaven shall go there, others shall enjoy the delights of paradise, and others shall possess the splendour of the city; for everywhere the Saviour  shall be seen according as they who see Him shall be worthy.
2. [They say, moreover], that there is this distinction between the
habitation of those who produce an hundred-fold, and that of those who
produce sixty-fold, and that of those who produce thirty-fold: for the
first will be taken up into the heavens, the second will dwell in
paradise, the last will inhabit the city; and that was on this account
the Lord declared, “In My Father’s house are many mansions.”  For
all things belong to God, who supplies all with a suitable
dwelling-place; even as His Word says, that a share is allotted to all
by the Father, according as each person is or shall be worthy. And this
is the couch on which the guests shall recline, having been invited to
the wedding.  The presbyters, the disciples of the apostles,
affirm that this is the gradation and arrangement of those who are
saved, and that they advance through steps of this nature; also that
they ascend through the Spirit to the Son, and through the Son to the
Father, and that in due time the Son will yield up His work to the
Father, even as it is said by the apostle, “For He must reign till He
hath put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that shall be
destroyed is death.”  For in the times of the kingdom, the
righteous man who is upon the earth shall then forget to die. “But when
He saith, All things shall be subdued unto Him, it is manifest that He
is excepted who did put all things under Him. And when all things shall
be subdued unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto
Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.” 
3. John, therefore, did distinctly foresee the first “resurrection of
the just,”  and the inheritance in the kingdom of the earth; and
what the prophets have prophesied concerning it harmonize [with his
vision]. For the Lord also taught these things, when He promised that
He would have the mixed cup new with His disciples in the kingdom. The
apostle, too, has confessed that the creation shall be free from the
bondage of corruption, [so as to pass] into the liberty of the sons of
God.  And in all these things, and by them all, the same God the
Father is manifested, who fashioned man, and gave promise of the
inheritance of the earth to the fathers, who brought it (the creature)
forth [from bondage] at the resurrection of the just, and fulfils the
promises for the kingdom of His Son; subsequently bestowing in a
paternal manner those things which neither the eye has seen, nor the
ear has heard, nor has [thought concerning them] arisen within the
heart of man,  For there is the one Son, who accomplished His
Father’s will; and one human race also in which the mysteries of God
are wrought, “which the angels desire to look into;”  and they
are not able to search out the wisdom of God, by means of which His
handiwork, confirmed and incorporated with His Son, is brought to
perfection; that His offspring, the First-begotten Word, should descend
to the creature (facturam), that is, to what had been moulded (plasma),
and that it should be contained by Him; and, on the other hand, the
creature should contain the Word, and ascend to Him, passing beyond the
 1 Cor. vii. 31.
 Lib. iv. 5, 6.
 Isa. lxvi. 22.
 Thus in a Greek fragment; in the Old Latin, Deus.
 John xiv. 2.
 Matt. xxii. 10.
 1 Cor. xv. 25, 26.
 1 Cor. xv. 27, 28.
 Luke xiv. 14.
 Rom. viii. 21.
 1 Cor. ii. 9; Isa. lxiv. 4.
 1 Pet. i. 12.
Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus
I adjure thee, who shalt transcribe this book,  by our Lord Jesus
Christ, and by His glorious appearing, when He comes to judge the
living and the dead, that thou compare what thou hast transcribed, and
be careful to set it right according to this copy from which thou hast
transcribed; also, that thou in like manner copy down this adjuration,
These  opinions, Florinus, that I may speak in mild terms, are
not of sound doctrine; these opinions are not consonant to the Church,
and involve their votaries in the utmost impiety; these opinions, even
the heretics beyond the Church’s pale have never ventured to broach;
these opinions, those presbyters who preceded us, and who were
conversant with the apostles, did not hand down to thee. For, while I
was yet a boy, I saw thee in Lower Asia with Polycarp, distinguishing
thyself in the royal court,  and endeavouring to gain his
approbation. For I have a more vivid recollection of what occurred at
that time than of recent events (inasmuch as the experiences of
childhood, keeping pace with the growth of the soul, become
incorporated with it); so that I can even describe the place where the
blessed Polycarp used to sit and discourse—his going out, too, and
his coming in—his general mode of life and personal appearance,
together with the discourses which he delivered to the people; also how
he would speak of his familiar intercourse with John, and with the rest
of those who had seen the Lord; and how he would call their words to
remembrance. Whatsoever things he had heard from them respecting the
Lord, both with regard to His miracles and His teaching, Polycarp
having thus received [information] from the eye-witnesses of the Word
of life, would recount them all in harmony with the Scriptures. These
things, through, God’s mercy which was upon me, I then listened to
attentively, and treasured them up not on paper, but in my heart; and I
am continually, by God’s grace, revolving these things accurately in my
mind. And I can bear witness before God, that if that blessed and
apostolical presbyter had heard any such thing, he would have cried
out, and stopped his ears, exclaiming as he was wont to do: “O good
God, for what times hast Thou reserved me, that I should endure these
things?” And he would have fled from the very spot where, sitting or
standing, he had heard such words. This fact, too, can be made clear,
 This interesting extract we also owe to Eusebius, who (ut sup.)
took it from the work De Ogdoade, written after this former friend of
Irenaeus had lapsed to Valentinianism. Florinus had previously held
that God was the author of evil, which sentiment Irenaeus opposed in a
treatise, now lost, called peri monarchias.
For  the controversy is not merely as regards the day, but also
as regards the form itself of the fast.  For some consider
themselves bound to fast one day, others two days, others still more,
while others [do so during] forty: the diurnal and the nocturnal hours
they measure out together as their [fasting] day.  And this
variety among the observers [of the fasts] had not its origin in our
time, but long before in that of our predecessors, some of whom
probably, being not very accurate in their observance of it, handed
down to posterity the custom as it had, through simplicity or private
fancy, been [introduced among them]. And yet nevertheless all these
lived in peace one with another, and we also keep peace together. Thus,
in fact, the difference [in observing] the fast establishes the harmony
of [our common] faith.  And the presbyters preceding Soter in the
government of the Church which thou dost now rule—I mean, Anicetus and
Pius, Hyginus and Telesphorus, and Sixtus—did neither themselves
observe it [after that fashion], nor permit those with them  to
do so. Notwithstanding this, those who did not keep [the feast in this
way] were peacefully disposed towards those who came to them from other
dioceses in which it was [so] observed although such observance was
[felt] in more decided contrariety [as presented] to those who did not
fall in with it; and none were ever cast out [of the Church] for this
matter. On the contrary, those presbyters who preceded thee, and who
did not observe [this custom], sent the Eucharist to those of other
dioceses who did observe it.  And when the blessed Polycarp was
sojourning in Rome in the time of Anicetus, although a slight
controversy had arisen among them as to certain other points, they were
at once well inclined towards each other [with regard to the matter in
hand], not willing that any quarrel should arise between them upon this
head. For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp to forego the
observance [in his own way], inasmuch as these things had been always
[so] observed by John the disciple of our Lord, and by other apostles
with whom he had been conversant; nor, on the other hand, could
Polycarp succeed in persuading Anicetus to keep [the observance in his
way], for he maintained that he was bound to adhere to the usage of the
presbyters who preceded him. And in this state of affairs they held
fellowship with each other; and Anicetus conceded to Polycarp in the
Church the celebration of the Eucharist, by way of showing him respect;
so that they parted in peace one from the other, maintaining peace with
 See pp. 31 and 312, of this volume. We are indebted again to
Eusebius for this valuable fragment from the Epistle of Irenaeus to
Victor Bishop of Rome (Hist. Eccl., v. 24; copied also by Nicephorus,
iv. 39). It appears to have been a synodical epistle to the head of the
Roman Church, the historian saying that it was written by Irenaeus, “in
the name of (ek prosopou) those brethren over whom he ruled throughout
Gaul.” Neither are these expressions to be limited to the Church at
Lyons, for the same authority records (v. 23) that it was the testimony
“of the dioceses throughout Gaul, which Irenaeus superintended” (Harvey).
 According to Harvey, the early paschal controversy resolved
itself into two particulars: (a) as regards the precise day on which
our Lord’s resurrection should be celebrated; (b) as regards the custom
of the fast preceding it.
 Both reading and punctuation are here subjects of controversy.
We have followed Massuet and Harvey.
 “The observance of a day, though not everywhere the same, showed
unity, so far as faith in the Lord’s resurrection was concerned.”—Harvey.
 Following the reading of Rufinus, the ordinary text has met’ autous, i.e., after them.
 This practice was afterwards forbidden by the Council of Laodicea [held about a.d. 360].
 It was perhaps in reference to this pleasing episode in the
annals of the Church, that the Council of Arles, a.d. 314, decreed that
the holy Eucharist should be consecrated by any foreign bishop present
As  long as any one has the means of doing good to his
neighbours, and does not do so, he shall be reckoned a stranger to the
 Quoted by Maximus Bishop of Turin, a.d. 422, Serm. vii. de
Eleemos., as from the Epistle to Pope Victor. It is also found in some
other ancient writers.
The  will and the energy of God is the effective and foreseeing
cause of every time and place and age, and of every nature. The will is
the reason (logos) of the intellectual soul, which [reason] is within
us, inasmuch as it is the faculty belonging to it which is endowed with
freedom of action. The will is the mind desiring [some object], and an
appetite possessed of intelligence, yearning after that thing which is
 Also quoted by Maximus Turinensis, Op. ii. 152, who refers it to
Irenaeus’s Sermo de Fide, which work, not being referred to by Eusebius
or Jerome, causes Massuet to doubt the authenticity of the fragment.
Since  God is vast, and the Architect of the world, and
omnipotent, He created things that reach to immensity both by the
Architect of the world and by an omnipotent will, and with a new
effect, potently and efficaciously, in order that the entire fulness of
those things which have been produced might come into being, although
they had no previous existence—that is, whatever does not fall under
[our] observation, and also what lies before our eyes. And so does He
contain all things in particular, and leads them on to their own proper
result, on account of which they were called into being and produced,
in no way changed into anything else than what it (the end) had
originally been by nature. For this is the property of the working of
God, not merely to proceed to the infinitude of the understanding, or
even to overpass [our] powers of mind, reason and speech, time and
place, and every age; but also to go beyond substance, and fulness or
 We owe this fragment also to Maximus, who quoted it from the
same work, de Fide, written by Irenaeus to Demetrius, a deacon of
Vienne. This and the last fragment were first printed by Feuardentius,
who obtained them from Faber; no reference, however, being given as to
the source from whence the Latin version was derived. The Greek of the
This  [custom], of not bending the knee upon Sunday, is a symbol
of the resurrection, through which we have been set free, by the grace
of Christ, from sins, and from death, which has been put to death under
Him. Now this custom took its rise from apostolic times, as the blessed
Irenaeus, the martyr and bishop of Lyons, declares in his treatise On
Easter, in which he makes mention of Pentecost also; upon which [feast]
we do not bend the knee, because it is of equal significance with the
 Taken from a work (Quaes. et Resp. ad Othod.) ascribed to Justin
Martyr, but certainly written after the Nicene Council. It is evident
that this is not an exact quotation from Irenaeus, but a summary of his
words. The “Sunday” here referred to must be Easter Sunday. Massuet’s
For  as the ark [of the covenant] was gilded within and without
 Cited by Leontius of Byzantium, who flourished about the year
a.d. 600; but he does not mention the writing of Irenaeus from which it
Ever,  indeed, speaking well of the deserving, but never ill of
 This fragment and the next three are from the Parallela of John
of Damascus. Frag. ix. x. xii. seem to be quotations from the treatise
of Irenaeus on the resurrection. No. xi. is extracted from his
Miscellaneous Dissertations, a work mentioned by Eusebius, biblion ti
It is indeed proper to God, and befitting His character, to show mercy
and pity, and to bring salvation to His creatures, even though they be
The business of the Christian is nothing else than to be ever preparing
We therefore have formed the belief that [our] bodies also do rise
again. For although they go to corruption, yet they do not perish; for
the earth, receiving the remains, preserves them, even like fertile
seed mixed with more fertile ground. Again, as a bare grain is sown,
and, germinating by the command of God its Creator, rises again,
clothed upon and glorious, but not before it has died and suffered
decomposition, and become mingled with the earth; so [it is seen from
this, that] we have not entertained a vain belief in the resurrection
of the body. But although it is dissolved at the appointed time,
because of the primeval disobedience, it is placed, as it were, in the
crucible of the earth, to be recast again; not then as this corruptible
[body], but pure, and no longer subject to decay: so that to each body
its own soul shall be restored; and when it is clothed upon with this,
it shall not experience sorrow, but shall rejoice, continuing
permanently in a state of purity, having for its companion a just
consort, not an insidious one, possessing in every respect the things
pertaining to it, it shall receive these with perfect accuracy; 
it shall not receive bodies diverse from what they had been, nor
delivered from suffering or disease, nor as [rendered] glorious, but as
they departed this life, in sins or in righteous actions: and such as
they were, such shall they be clothed with upon resuming life; and such
 This sentence in the original seems incomplete; we have followed
For  when the Greeks, having arrested the slaves of Christian
catechumens, then used force against them, in order to learn from them
some secret thing [practised] among Christians, these slaves, having
nothing to say that would meet the wishes of their tormentors, except
that they had heard from their masters that the divine communion was
the body and blood of Christ, and imagining that it was actually flesh
and blood, gave their inquisitors answer to that effect. Then these
latter, assuming such to be the case with regard to the practices of
Christians, gave information regarding it to other Greeks, and sought
to compel the martyrs Sanctus and Blandina to confess, under the
influence of torture, [that the allegation was correct]. To these men
 “This extract is found in OEcumenius upon 1 Pet. c. iii. p. 198;
and the words used by him indicate, as Grabe has justly observed, that
How  is it possible to say that the serpent, created by God dumb
and irrational, was endowed with reason and speech? For if it had the
power of itself to speak, to discern, to understand, and to reply to
what was spoken by the woman, there would have been nothing to prevent
every serpent from doing this also. If, however, they say again that it
was according to the divine will and dispensation that this [serpent]
spake with a human voice to Eve, they render God the author of sin.
Neither was it possible for the evil demon to impart speech to a
speechless nature, and thus from that which is not to produce that
which is; for if that were the case, he never would have ceased (with
the view of leading men astray) from conferring with and deceiving them
by means of serpents, and beasts, and birds. From what quarter, too,
did it, being a beast, obtain information regarding the injunction of
God to the man given to him alone, and in secret, not even the woman
herself being aware of it? Why also did it not prefer to make its
attack upon the man instead of the woman? And if thou sayest that it
attacked her as being the weaker of the two, [I reply that], on the
contrary, she was the stronger, since she appears to have been the
helper of the man in the transgression of the commandment. For she did
by herself alone resist the serpent, and it was after holding out for a
while and making opposition that she ate of the tree, being
circumvented by craft; whereas Adam, making no fight whatever, nor
refusal, partook of the fruit handed to him by the woman, which is an
indication of the utmost imbecility and effeminacy of mind. And the
woman indeed, having been vanquished in the contest by a demon, is
deserving of pardon; but Adam shall deserve none, for he was worsted by
a woman,--he who, in his own person, had received the command from God.
But the woman, having heard of the command from Adam, treated it with
contempt, either because she deemed it unworthy of God to speak by means of it, or because she had her doubts, perhaps even held the opinion that the command was given to her by Adam of his own accord.
The serpent found her working alone, so that he was enabled to confer
with her apart. Observing her then either eating or not eating from the
trees, he put before her the fruit of the [forbidden] tree. And if he
saw her eating, it is manifest that she was partaker of a body subject
to corruption. “For everything going in at the mouth, is cast out into
the draught.”  If then corruptible, it is obvious that she was
also mortal. But if mortal, then there was certainly no curse; nor was
that a [condemnatory] sentence, when the voice of God spake to the man,
“For earth thou art, and unto earth shall thou return,”  as the
true course of things proceeds [now and always]. Then again, if the
serpent observed the woman not eating, how did he induce her to eat who
never had eaten? And who pointed out to this accursed man-slaying
serpent that the sentence of death pronounced against them by God would
not take [immediate] effect, when He said, “For in the day that ye eat
thereof, ye shall surely die?” And not this merely, but that along with
the impunity  [attending their sin] the eyes of those should be
 From the Contemplations of Anastasius Sinaita, who flourished
a.d. 685. Harvey doubts as to this fragment being a genuine production
of Irenaeus; and its whole style of reasoning confirms the suspicion.
 Matt. xv. 17.
 Gen. iii. 19.
 The Greek reads the barbarous word athrixia, which Massuet
thinks is a corruption of athanasia, immortality. We have, however,
followed the conjecture of Harvey, who would substitute aplexia, which
When,  in times of old, Balaam spake these things in parables, he
was not acknowledged; and now, when Christ has appeared and fulfilled
them, He was not believed. Wherefore [Balaam], foreseeing this, and
wondering at it, exclaimed, “Alas! alas! who shall live when God brings
 This and the eight following fragments may be referred to the
Miscellaneous Dissertations of our author; see note on Frag. ix. They
are found in three mss. in the Imperial Collection at Paris, on the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth.
Expounding again the law to that generation which followed those who
were slain in the wilderness, he published Deuteronomy; not as giving
to them a different law from that which had been appointed for their
fathers, but as recapitulating this latter, in order that they, by
hearing what had happened to their fathers, might fear God with their
By these Christ was typified, and acknowledged, and brought into the
world; for He was prefigured in Joseph: then from Levi and Judah He was
descended according to the flesh, as King and Priest; and He was
acknowledged by Simeon in the temple: through Zebulon He was believed
in among the Gentiles, as says the prophet, “the land of Zabulon;”
 and through Benjamin [that is, Paul] He was glorified, by being
 Isa. ix. 1.
 Compare the statement of Clemens Romanus (page 6 of this
volume), where, speaking of St. Paul, he says: “After preaching both in
the east and west ... having taught righteousness to the whole world,
And this was not without meaning; but that by means of the number of
the ten men,  he (Gideon) might appear as having Jesus for a
helper, as [is indicated] by the compact entered into with them. And
when he did not choose to partake with them in their idol-worship, they
threw the blame upon him: for “Jerubbaal” signifies the judgment-seat
 See Judg. vi. 27. It is not very clear how Irenaeus makes out
this allegory, but it is thought that he refers to the initial letter
in the name ‘Iesous, which stands for ten in the Greek enumeration.
“Take unto thee Joshua (‘Iesoun) the son of Nun.”  For it was
proper that Moses should lead the people out of Egypt, but that Jesus
(Joshua) should lead them into the inheritance. Also that Moses, as was
the case with the law, should cease to be, but that Joshua (‘Iesoun),
as the word, and no untrue type of the Word made flesh (enupostatou),
should be a preacher to the people. Then again, [it was fit] that Moses
should give manna as food to the fathers, but Joshua wheat;  as
 Num. xxvii. 18.
 Harvey conceives the reading here (which is doubtful) to have
been ton neon siton, the new wheat; and sees an allusion to the
wave-sheaf of the new corn offered in the temple on the morning of our
“And  he laid his hands upon him.”  The countenance of
Joshua was also glorified by the imposition of the hands of Moses, but
 Massuet seems to more than doubt the genuineness of this fragment and the next, and would ascribe them to the pen of Apollinaris, bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, a contemporary of Irenaeus. Harvey passes over these two fragments.
 Num. xxvii. 23.
But he does not give, as Christ did, by means of breathing, because he
“Thou shall not go with them, neither shalt thou curse the people.”
 He does not hint at anything with regard to the people, for they
all lay before his view, but [he refers] to the mystery of Christ
pointed out beforehand. For as He was to be born of the fathers
according to the flesh, the Spirit gives instructions to the man
(Balaam) beforehand, lest, going forth in ignorance, he might pronounce
a curse upon the people.  Not, indeed, that [his curse] could
take any effect contrary to the will of God; but [this was done] as an
exhibition of the providence of God which He exercised towards them on
 Num. xxii. 12.
 The conjectural emendation of Harvey has been adopted here, but
“And he mounted upon his ass.”  The ass was the type of the body
of Christ, upon whom all men, resting from their labours, are borne as
in a chariot. For the Saviour has taken up the burden of our sins.
 Now the angel who appeared to Balaam was the Word Himself; and
 Num. xxii. 22, 23.
 From one of the mss. Stieren would insert en to idio somati, in
“God is not as a man.”  He thus shows that all men are indeed
guilty of falsehood, inasmuch as they change from one thing to another
“To inflict vengeance from the Lord on Midian.”  For this man
(Balaam), when he speaks no longer in the Spirit of God, but contrary
to God’s law, by setting up a different law with regard to fornication,
 is certainly not then to be counted as a prophet, but as a
soothsayer. For he who did not keep to the commandment of God, received
 Num. xxxi. 3.
 Num. xxxi. 16.
Know  thou that every man is either empty or full. For if he has
not the Holy Spirit, he has no knowledge of the Creator; he has not
received Jesus Christ the Life; he knows not the Father who is in
heaven; if he does not live after the dictates of reason, after the
heavenly law, he is not a sober-minded person, nor does he act
uprightly: such an one is empty. If, on the other hand, he receives
God, who says, “I will dwell with them, and walk in them, and I will be
 It is not certain from what work of Irenaeus this extract is derived; Harvey thinks it to be from his work peri epistemes, i.e., concerning Knowledge.
The little boy, therefore, who guided Samson by the hand, 
pre-typified John the Baptist, who showed to the people the faith in
Christ. And the house in which they were assembled signifies the world,
in which dwell the various heathen and unbelieving nations, offering
sacrifice to their idols. Moreover, the two pillars are the two
covenants. The fact, then, of Samson leaning himself upon the pillars,
“And the man of God said, Where did it fall? And he showed him the
place. And he cut down a tree, and cast it in there, and the iron
floated.”  This was a sign that souls should be borne aloft
(anagoges psuchon) through the instrumentality of wood, upon which He
suffered who can lead those souls aloft that follow His ascension. This
event was also an indication of the fact, that when the holy soul of
Christ descended [to Hades], many souls ascended and were seen in their
 2 Kings vi. 6. Comp. book v. chap. xvii. 4.
The  Gospel according to Matthew was written to the Jews. For
they laid particular stress upon the fact that Christ [should be] of
the seed of David. Matthew also, who had a still greater desire [to
establish this point], took particular pains to afford them convincing
proof that Christ is of the seed of David; and therefore he commences
 Edited by P. Possin, in a Catena Patrum on St. Matthew. See book
“The axe unto the root,”  he says, urging us to the knowledge of
the truth, and purifying us by means of fear, as well as preparing [us]
 From the same Catena. Compare book v. chap. xvii. 4.
Observe  that, by means of the grain of mustard seed in the
parable, the heavenly doctrine is denoted which is sown like seed in
the world, as in a field, [seed] which has an inherent force, fiery and
powerful. For the Judge of the whole world is thus proclaimed, who,
having been hidden in the heart of the earth in a tomb for three days,
and having become a great tree, has stretched forth His branches to the
ends of the earth. Sprouting out from Him, the twelve apostles, having
become fair and fruitful boughs, were made a shelter for the nations as
for the fowls of heaven, under which boughs, all having taken refuge,
as birds flocking to a nest, have been made partakers of that wholesome
Josephus says, that when Moses had been brought up in the royal
palaces, he was chosen as general against the Ethiopians; and having
proved victorious, obtained in marriage the daughter of that king,
since indeed, out of her affection for him, she delivered the city up
to him. 
Why was it, that when these two (Aaron and Miriam) had both acted with
despite towards him (Moses), the latter alone was adjudged punishment?
 First, because the woman was the more culpable, since both
nature and the law place the woman in a subordinate condition to the
man. Or perhaps it was that Aaron was to a certain degree excusable, in
consideration of his being the elder [brother], and adorned with the
dignity of high priest. Then again, inasmuch as the leper was accounted
by the law unclean, while at the same time the origin and foundation of
the priesthood lay in Aaron, [the Lord] did not award a similar
punishment to him, lest this stigma should attach itself to the entire
[sacerdotal] race; but by means of his sister’s [example] He awoke his
fears, and taught him the same lesson. For Miriam’s punishment affected
him to such an extent, that no sooner did she experience it, than he
entreated [Moses], who had been injured, that he would by his
intercession do away with the affliction. And he did not neglect to do
so, but at once poured forth his supplication. Upon this the Lord, who
 Massuet’s Fragment xxxii. is here passed over; it is found in book iii. chap. xviii. 7.
 See Josephus’ Antiquities, book ii. chap. x., where we read that
this king’s daughter was called Tharbis. Immediately upon the surrender
of this city (Saba, afterwards called Meroe) Moses married her, and
returned to Egypt. Whiston, in the notes to his translation of
Josephus, says, “Nor, perhaps, did St. Stephen refer to anything else
when he said of Moses, before he was sent by God to the Israelites, that he was not only learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, but was also mighty in words and in deeds” (Acts vii. 22).
 Num. xii. 1, etc.
Inasmuch  as certain men, impelled by what considerations I know
not, remove from God the half of His creative power, by asserting that
He is merely the cause of quality resident in matter, and by
maintaining that matter itself is uncreated, come now let us put the
question, What is at any time ... is immutable. Matter, then, is
immutable. But if matter be immutable, and the immutable suffers no
change in regard to quality, it does not form the substance of the
world. For which reason it seems to them superfluous, that God has
annexed qualities to matter, since indeed matter admits of no possible
alteration, it being in itself an uncreated thing. But further, if
matter be uncreated, it has been made altogether according to a certain
quality, and this immutable, so that it cannot be receptive of more
qualities, nor can it be the thing of which the world is made. But if
the world be not made from it, [this theory] entirely excludes God from
“And  dipped himself,” says [the Scripture], “seven times in
Jordan.”  It was not for nothing that Naaman of old, when
suffering from leprosy, was purified upon his being baptized, but [it
served] as an indication to us. For as we are lepers in sin, we are
made clean, by means of the sacred water and the invocation of the
Lord, from our old transgressions; being spiritually regenerated as
new-born babes, even as the Lord has declared: “Except a man be born
again through water and the Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom
 This and the next fragment first appeared in the Benedictine
edition reprinted at Venice, 1734. They were taken from a ms. Catena on
the book of Kings in the Coislin Collection.
 2 Kings v. 14.
If the corpse of Elisha raised a dead man,  how much more shall
True  knowledge, then, consists in the understanding of Christ,
which Paul terms the wisdom of God hidden in a mystery, which “the
natural man receiveth not,”  the doctrine of the cross; of which
if any man “taste,”  he will not accede to the disputations and
quibbles of proud and puffed-up men,  who go into matters of
which they have no perception.  For the truth is unsophisticated
(aschematistos); and “the word is nigh thee, in thy mouth and in thy
heart,”  as the same apostle declares, being easy of
comprehension to those who are obedient. For it renders us like to
Christ, if we experience “the power of his resurrection and the
fellowship of His sufferings.”  For this is the affinity 
of the apostolical teaching and the most holy “faith delivered unto
us,”  which the unlearned receive, and those of slender knowledge
have taught, not “giving heed to endless genealogies,”  but
studying rather [to observe] a straightforward course of life; lest,
having been deprived of the Divine Spirit, they fail to attain to the
kingdom of heaven. For truly the first thing is to deny one’s self and
to follow Christ; and those who do this are borne onward to perfection,
having fulfilled all their Teacher’s will, becoming sons of God by
spiritual regeneration, and heirs of the kingdom of heaven; those who
 This extract and the next three were discovered in the year 1715
by [Christopher Matthew] Pfaff, a learned Lutheran, in the Royal
Library at Turin. The mss. from which they were taken were neither
catalogued nor classified, and have now disappeared from the
collection. It is impossible to say with any degree of probability from
what treatises of our author these four fragments have been culled. For
a full account of their history, see Stieren’s edition of Irenaeus,
vol. ii. p. 381. [But, in all candor, let Pfaff himself be heard. His
little work is full of learning, and I have long possessed it as a treasure to which I often recur. Pfaff’s Irenaei Fragmenta was published at The Hague, 1715.]
 1 Cor. ii. 14.
 1 Pet. ii. 3.
 1 Tim. vi. 4, 5.
 Col. ii. 18.
 Rom. x. 8; Deut. xxx. 14.
 Phil. iii. 10.
 Harvey’s conjectural emendation, epiploke for epiloge, has been
 Jude 3.
Those who have become acquainted with the secondary (i.e., under
Christ) constitutions of the apostles,  are aware that the Lord
instituted a new oblation in the new covenant, according to [the
declaration of] Malachi the prophet. For, “from the rising of the sun
even to the setting my name has been glorified among the Gentiles, and
in every place incense is offered to my name, and a pure sacrifice;”
 as John also declares in the Apocalypse: “The incense is the
prayers of the saints.”  Then again, Paul exhorts us “to present
our bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your
reasonable service.”  And again, “Let us offer the sacrifice of
praise, that is, the fruit of the lips.”  Now those oblations are
not according to the law, the handwriting of which the Lord took away
from the midst by cancelling it;  but they are according to the
Spirit, for we must worship God “in spirit and in truth.”  And
therefore the oblation of the Eucharist is not a carnal one, but a
spiritual; and in this respect it is pure. For we make an oblation to
God of the bread and the cup of blessing, giving Him thanks in that He
has commanded the earth to bring forth these fruits for our
nourishment. And then, when we have perfected the oblation, we invoke
the Holy Spirit, that He may exhibit this sacrifice, both the bread the
body of Christ, and the cup the blood of Christ, in order that the
receivers of these antitypes  may obtain remission of sins and
life eternal. Those persons, then, who perform these oblations in
remembrance of the Lord, do not fall in with Jewish views, but,
performing the service after a spiritual manner, they shall be called
 tais deuterais ton apostolon diataxesi. Harvey thinks that these
words imply, “the formal constitution, which the apostles, acting under
the impulse of the Spirit, though still in a secondary capacity, gave
to the Church.”
 Mal. i. 11.
 Rev. v. 8. The same view of the eucharistic oblation, etc., is
found in book iv. chap. xvii.: as also in Justin Martyr; see Trypho, cap. xli. supra in this volume.
 Rom. xii. 1.
 Heb. xiii. 15.
 Col. ii. 14.
 John iv. 24.
 Harvey explains this word antitupon as meaning an “exact
counterpart.” He refers to the word where it occurs in Contra Haereses,
The  apostles ordained, that “we should not judge any one in
respect to meat or drink, or in regard to a feast day, or the new
moons, or the sabbaths.”  Whence then these contentions? whence
these schisms? We keep the feast, but in the leaven of malice and
wickedness, cutting in pieces the Church of God; and we preserve what
 Taken apparently from the Epistle to Blastus, de Schismate.
Compare a similar passage, lib. iv. chap. xxxiii. 7.
 Col. ii. 16.
Christ,  who was called the Son of God before the ages, was
manifested in the fulness of time, in order that He might cleanse us
through His blood, who were under the power of sin, presenting us as
pure sons to His Father, if we yield ourselves obediently to the
chastisement of the Spirit. And in the end of time He shall come to do
 “From the same collection at Turin. The passage seems to be of
cognate matter with the treatise De Resurrec. Pfaff referred it either
to the dialexeis diaphoroi or to the epideixis apostolikou kerugmatos.”
“And  he found the jaw-bone of an ass.”  It is to be
observed that, after [Samson had committed] fornication, the holy
Scripture no longer speaks of the things happily accomplished by him in
connection with the formula, “The Spirit of the Lord came upon him.”
 For thus, according to the holy apostle, the sin of fornication
 This and the four following fragments are taken from mss. in the
Vatican Library at Rome. They are apparently quoted from the homiletical expositions of the historical books already referred to.
 Judg. xv. 15.
 Judg. xiv. 6-19.
This  indicates the persecution against the Church set on foot by
the nations who still continue in unbelief. But he (Samson) who suffered those things, trusted that there would be a retaliation against those waging this war. But retaliation through what means?
First of all, by his betaking himself to the Rock  not cognizable
 These words were evidently written during a season of persecution in Gaul; but what that persecution was, it is useless to conjecture.
 Judg. xv. 11.
Speaking always well of the worthy, but never ill of the unworthy, we
In  these things there was signified by prophecy that the people,
having become transgressors, shall be bound by the chains of their own
sins. But the breaking of the bonds of their own accord indicates that,
 Most probably from a homily upon the third and fourth chapters
 We give this brief fragment as it appears in the editions of
Stieren, Migne, and Harvey, who speculate as to its origin. They seem
“And  Balaam the son of Beor they slew with the sword.” 
For, speaking no longer by the Spirit of God, but setting up another
law of fornication contrary to the law of God,  this man shall no
longer be reckoned as a prophet, but as a soothsayer. For, as he did
not continue in the commandment of God, he received the just reward of
 With the exception of the initial text, this fragment is almost
identical with No. xxv.
 Num. xxxi. 8.
 From the Catena on St. Paul’s Epistles to the Corinthians, edited by Dr. Cramer, and reprinted by Stieren.
The  birth of John [the Baptist] brought the dumbness of
Zacharias to an end. For he did not burden his father, when the voice
issued forth from silence; but as when not believed it rendered him
tongue-tied, so did the voice sounding out clearly set his father free,
 Extracted from a ms. of Greek theology in the Palatine Library
at Vienna. The succeeding fragment in the editions of Harvey, Migne,
and Stieren, is omitted, as it is merely a transcript of book iii. ch.
As  therefore seventy tongues are indicated by number, and from
 dispersion the tongues are gathered into one by means of their
interpretation; so is that ark declared a type of the body of Christ,
which is both pure and immaculate. For  as that ark was gilded
with pure gold both within and without, so also is the body of Christ
pure and resplendent, being adorned within by the Word, and shielded on
 This fragment commences a series derived from the Nitrian Collection of Syriac mss. in the British Museum.
 The Syriac text is here corrupt and obscure.
Now  therefore, by means of this which has been already brought
forth a long time since, the Word has assigned an interpretation. We
are convinced that there exist [so to speak] two men in each one of us.
The one is confessedly a hidden thing, while the other stands apparent;
one is corporeal, the other spiritual; although the generation of both
may be compared to that of twins. For both are revealed to the world as
but one, for the soul was not anterior to the body in its essence; nor,
 The Syriac ms. introduces this quotation as follows: “From the
For  then there shall in truth be a common joy consummated to all
those who believe unto life, and in each individual shall be confirmed
the mystery of the Resurrection, and the hope of incorruption, and the
commencement of the eternal kingdom, when God shall have destroyed
death and the devil. For that human nature and flesh which has risen
again from the dead shall die no more; but after it had been changed to
incorruption, and made like to spirit, when the heaven was opened, [our
 This extract is introduced as follows: “For Irenaeus Bishop of
Lyons, who was a contemporary of the disciple of the apostle, Polycarp
Bishop of Smyrna, and martyr, and for this reason is held in just
estimation, wrote to an Alexandrian to the effect that it is right,
with respect to the feast of the Resurrection, that we should celebrate
it upon the first day of the week.” This shows us that the extract must
Now,  however, inasmuch as the books of these men may possibly
have escaped your observation, but have come under our notice, I call
your attention to them, that for the sake of your reputation you may
expel these writings from among you, as bringing disgrace upon you,
since their author boasts himself as being one of your company. For
they constitute a stumbling-block to many, who simply and unreservedly
receive, as coming from a presbyter, the blasphemy which they utter
against God. Just [consider] the writer of these things, how by means
of them he does not injure assistants [in divine service] only, who
happen to be prepared in mind for blasphemies against God, but also
damages those among us, since by his books he imbues their minds with
The  sacred books acknowledge with regard to Christ, that as He
is the Son of man, so is the same Being not a [mere] man; and as He is
flesh, so is He also spirit, and the Word of God, and God. And as He
was born of Mary in the last times, so did He also proceed from God as
the First-begotten of every creature; and as He hungered, so did He
satisfy [others]; and as He thirsted, so did He of old cause the Jews
to drink, for the “Rock was Christ”  Himself: thus does Jesus now
give to His believing people power to drink spiritual waters, which
spring up to life eternal.  And as He was the son of David, so
was He also the Lord of David. And as He was from Abraham, so did He
also exist before Abraham.  And as He was the servant of God, so
is He the Son of God, and Lord of the universe. And as He was spit upon
ignominiously, so also did He breathe the Holy Spirit into His
disciples.  And as He was saddened, so also did He give joy to
His people. And as He was capable of being handled and touched, so
again did He, in a non-apprehensible form, pass through the midst of
those who sought to injure Him,  and entered without impediment
through closed doors.  And as He slept, so did He also rule the
sea, the winds, and the storms. And as He suffered, so also is He
alive, and life-giving, and healing all our infirmity. And as He died,
so is He also the Resurrection of the dead. He suffered shame on earth,
while He is higher than all glory and praise in heaven; who, “though He
was crucified through weakness, yet He liveth by divine power;” 
who “descended into the lower parts of the earth,” and who “ascended up
above the heavens;”  for whom a manger sufficed, yet who filled
 This extract had already been printed by M. Pitra in his Spicilegium Solesmense, p. 6.
 1 Cor. x. 4.
 John iv. 14.
 John viii. 58.
 John xx. 22.
 John viii. 59.
 John xx. 26.
 2 Cor. xiii. 4.
With  regard to Christ, the law and the prophets and the
evangelists have proclaimed that He was born of a virgin, that He
suffered upon a beam of wood, and that He appeared from the dead; that
He also ascended to the heavens, and was glorified by the Father, and
is the Eternal King; that He is the perfect Intelligence, the Word of
God, who was begotten before the light; that He was the Founder of the
universe, along with it (light), and the Maker of man; that He is All
in all: Patriarch among the patriarchs; Law in the laws; Chief Priest
among priests; Ruler among kings; the Prophet among prophets; the Angel
among angels; the Man among men; Son in the Father; God in God; King to
all eternity. For it is He who sailed [in the ark] along with Noah, and
who guided Abraham; who was bound along with Isaac, and was a Wanderer
with Jacob; the Shepherd of those who are saved, and the Bridegroom of
the Church; the Chief also of the cherubim, the Prince of the angelic
powers; God of God; Son of the Father; Jesus Christ; King for ever and
 This extract from the Syriac is a shorter form of the next
fragment, which seems to be interpolated in some places. The latter is
The  law and the prophets and evangelists have declared that
Christ was born of a virgin, and suffered on the cross; was raised also
from the dead, and taken up to heaven; that He was glorified, and
reigns for ever. He is Himself termed the Perfect Intellect, the Word
of God. He is the First-begotten,  after a transcendent manner,
the Creator of man; All in all; Patriarch among the patriarchs; Law in
the law; the Priest among priests; among kings Prime Leader; the
Prophet among the prophets; the Angel among angels; the Man among men;
Son in the Father; God in God; King to all eternity. He was sold with
Joseph, and He guided Abraham; was bound along with Isaac, and wandered
with Jacob; with Moses He was Leader, and, respecting the people,
Legislator. He preached in the prophets; was incarnate of a virgin;
born in Bethlehem; received by John, and baptized in Jordan; was
tempted in the desert, and proved to be the Lord. He gathered the
apostles together, and preached the kingdom of heaven; gave light to
the blind, and raised the dead; was seen in the temple, but was not
held by the people as worthy of credit; was arrested by the priests,
conducted before Herod, and condemned in the presence of Pilate; He
manifested Himself in the body, was suspended upon a beam of wood, and
raised from the dead; shown to the apostles, and, having been carried
up to heaven, sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and has been
glorified by Him as the Resurrection of the dead. Moreover, He is the
Salvation of the lost, the Light to those dwelling in darkness, and
Redemption to those who have been born; the Shepherd of the saved, and
 This fragment is thus introduced in the Armenian copy: “From St.Irenaeus, bishop, follower of the apostles, on the Lord’s resurrection.”
“Then  drew near unto Him the mother of Zebedee’s children, with
her sons, worshipping, and seeking a certain thing from Him.” 
These people are certainly not void of understanding, nor are the words
set forth in that passage of no signification: being stated beforehand
like a preface, they have some agreement with those points formerly expounded.
“Then drew near.” Sometimes virtue excites our admiration, not merely
on account of the display which is given of it, but also of the
occasion when it was manifested. I may refer, for example, to the
premature fruit of the grape, or of the fig, or to any fruit
whatsoever, from which, during its process [of growth], no man expects
maturity or full development; yet, although any one may perceive that
it is still somewhat imperfect, he does not for that reason despise as
useless the immature grape when plucked, but he gathers it with
pleasure as appearing early in the season; nor does he consider whether
the grape is possessed of perfect sweetness; nay, he at once
experiences satisfaction from the thought that this one has appeared
before the rest. Just in the same way does God also, when He perceives
the faithful possessing wisdom though still imperfect, and but a small
degree of faith, overlook their defect in this respect, and therefore
does not reject them; nay, but on the contrary, He kindly welcomes and
accepts them as premature fruits, and honours the mind, whatsoever it
may be, which is stamped with virtue, although not yet perfect. He
makes allowance for it, as being among the harbingers of the vintage,
 and esteems it highly, inasmuch as, being of a readier
disposition than the rest, it has forestalled, as it were, the blessing
Abraham therefore, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers, are to be esteemed
before all, since they did indeed afford us such early examples of
virtue. How many martyrs can be compared to Daniel? How many martyrs, I
ask, can rival the three youths in Babylon, although the memory of the
former has not been brought before us so conspicuously as that of the
latter? These were truly first-fruits, and indications of the [succeeding] fructification. Hence God has directed their life to be recorded, as a model for those who should come after.
And that their virtue was thus accepted by God, as the first-fruits of
the produce, hear what He has Himself declared: “As a grape,” He says,
“I have found Israel in the wilderness, and as first-ripe figs your
fathers.”  Call not therefore the faith of Abraham merely blessed
because he believed. Do you wish to look upon Abraham with admiration?
Then behold how that one man alone professed piety when in the world
six hundred had been contaminated with error. Dost thou wish Daniel to
carry thee away to amazement? Behold that [city] Babylon, haughty in
the flower and pride of impiousness, and its inhabitants completely
given over to sin of every description. But he, emerging from the
depth, spat out the brine of sins, and rejoiced to plunge into the
sweet waters of piety. And now, in like manner, with regard to that
mother of Zebedee’s children, do not admire merely what she said, but
also the time at which she uttered these words. For when was it that
she drew near to the Redeemer? Not after the resurrection, nor after
the preaching of His name, nor after the establishment of His kingdom;
but it was when the Lord said, “Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and the
Son of man shall be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes; and
they shall kill Him, and on the third day He shall rise again.” 
These things the Saviour told in reference to His sufferings and cross;
to these persons He predicted His passion. Nor did He conceal the fact
that it should be of a most ignominious kind, at the hands of the chief
priests. This woman, however, had attached another meaning to the
dispensation of His sufferings. The Saviour was foretelling death; and
she asked for the glory of immortality. The Lord was asserting that He
must stand arraigned before impious judges; but she, taking no note of
that judgment, requested as of the judge: “Grant,” she said, “that
these my two sons may sit, one on the right hand, and the other on the
left, in Thy glory.” In the one case the passion is referred to, in the
other the kingdom is understood. The Saviour was speaking of the cross,
while she had in view the glory which admits no suffering. This woman,
therefore, as I have already said, is worthy of our admiration, not
merely for what she sought, but also for the occasion of her making the
She did indeed suffer, not merely as a pious person, but also as a
woman. For, having been instructed by His words, she considered and
believed that it would come to pass, that the kingdom of Christ should
flourish in glory, and walk in its vastness throughout the world, and
be increased by the preaching of piety. She understood, as was [in
fact] the case, that He who appeared in a lowly guise had delivered and
received every promise. I will inquire upon another occasion, when I
come to treat upon this humility, whether the Lord rejected her
petition concerning His kingdom. But she thought that the same
confidence would not be possessed by her, when, at the appearance of
the angels, He should be ministered to by the angels, and receive
service from the entire heavenly host. Taking the Saviour, therefore,
 From an Armenian ms. in the Library of the Mechitarist Convent
at Vienna, edited by M. Pitra, who considers this fragment as of very
doubtful authority. It commences with this heading: “From the second series of Homilies of Saint Irenaeus, follower of the Apostles; a Homily upon the Sons of Zebedee.”
 Matt. xx. 20.
 That is, the wine which flows from the grapes before they are trodden out.
 Hos. ix. 10.